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The Whipping Properties of Homogenized and Sterilized Cream

Authors: F.G. Kieseker and J.G. Zadow


The effects of processing conditions and additives on whipping properties of homogenized and homogenized sterilized cream were studied.

Homogenization of cream increased whipping time and decreased overrun to an extent dependent on the homogenizing conditions. The effects of homogenization could, to a large extent, be overcome by adjustment of the degree of aggregation of the fat globules by physical or chemical methods. Addition of calcium, or decrease in pH, both of which were shown to cause clustering of fat globules, shortened whip times and improved whip quality. The addition of sodium citrate - a calcium sequestering agent - resulted in fat globule dispersion and decreased the tendency for cream to whip. Addition of milk solids-not-fat or organic stabilizers had relatively minor effects on whip properties of homogenized cream.

Retort sterilization after single-stage homogenization at a pressure of 5 MPa aided fat aggregation as judged by the rate of fat separation on storage. The use of two-stage homogenization at 2 MPa and 0.7 MPa reduced this tendency. The factors shown to affect fat aggregation in homogenized cream had similar effects on fat separation in sterilized cream.

Adequate control of fat separation in retort sterilized homogenized cream, together with satisfactory whipping properties, were achieved by the addition of a mixed carrageenanlecithin stabilizer.

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