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The trend to whole milk deliveries in main dairying areas of this State has focused attention upon the desirability of reliable tests to determine milk quality, particularly to supplement the acceptable grading by smell on the receiving platform. This organoleptic classification cannot be replaced by any single bacteriological or chemical analysis, but the experience grader detects undesirable flavours due to various causes such as weeds, absorbed chemical odours, unclean production and developed acidity. It is desirable, however, to have such subjective grading supported by recognised objective tests or tests that can objectively applied and the results of which are capable of interpretation in terms of particular faults in production and storage methods.
Authors: D.B. DiRienzo, L.A. Spence, P.J. Huth and V.L. Fulgoni
Obesity has been classified as an epidemic in the United States and has become a major health issue world-wide. Food companies are trying to understand how to manage this issue. Individuals who are dieting often reduce dairy foods in their diet. This paper reviews emerging science that indicates that dairy products may be part of the solution, not part of the problem for obesity. Several studies have demonstrated an inverse effect between dairy food/calcium intake and body weight. Recent clinical studies have indicated that three servings of dairy foods per day in a reduced calorie diet may help accelerate body weight and, in particular, body fat loss when compared to a calorie-restricted diet low in dairy foods. The addition of calcium via supplements has an intermediary effect. Of importance is the loss of fat around the trunk resulting from higher dairy diets with concomitant reductions in blood pressure, plasma insulin and glucose. Clinical studies also indicate that under weight maintenance conditions, increased dairy product consumption can significantly reduce body fat. Animal and in-vitro studies have provided a plausible mechanism on how dairy foods may be exerting their effect on body composition. Low dairy/calcium intakes result in the flow of calcium into fat cells as a result of increased 1α,(25-OH)2- D3 and other calcium regulating hormones. Higher adipocyte calcium concentrations result in an up-regulation of lipogenic pathways while down regulating lipolytic pathways in the adipocyte. Diets high in dairy products have an opposite effect.
Authors: Antony W. Scammell, Peter C. Vergouwen and Erwin J. Thimister
More than half the children and three in 10 Australian adults actively participate in organised sport. Adult male participation (33%) exceeds female (25%), together representing four million frequent adult participants of whom one-quarter are involved in more than one sport. A further 3.5 million people engage in other sport and physical activity, making a total of 55% of adults (7.5 million) who deliberately exercise or play sport. These overall participation rates are broadly similar to the United States and England. The variety of sports and physical activities, when added to each individual's attributes and goals, enfold a complex picture for optimal nutritional support. The requirements of most sportspeople to produce more power and maintain or achieve chosen body mass and body fat levels can be addressed within recognised nutritional guidelines, of which dairy products are an integral part. Dairy is further recognised for providing calcium, especially to those in weight-dependent sports. Dedicated athletes employ specific, timed nutritional strategies to meet their goals. Milk itself and dairy-based supplements have an established role in some of these strategies and recent research indicates potential for an increased role. Protein supplementation is common practice, and whey is a preferred source. Recent clinical studies in power and endurance athletes have demonstrated performance and recovery improvements and a reduction in upper respiratory tract infections using concentrated bovine colostrum protein powder (intact®) as compared with whey protein concentrate. Dairy contributes positively to the health and performance of people engaging in sport.
Milk contains bioactive molecules that have the potential to either increase or decrease aspects of humoral and cellular immunity. However, most research on immune-modulation by milk ingredients has been conducted on ex vivo cells and tissues. It is likely that only a few ingredients that show potential in ex vivo assays will show efficacy in intact animals and be suitable to be incorporated into products. However, it is encouraging that in animal models some of these molecules are effective in combating infections, cancers and immune pathologies. Modulating the immune system is potentially dangerous and safety of modified foods or their ingredients must not be ignored, especially if a food is fortified with a single protein that has been shown to have quasi pharmaceutical properties. There are many situations where immune health is threatened; sometimes it is a corollary of accompanying diseases, sometimes it is the consequence of life's choices. Consumers may take them to reduce their risk of contracting infections, lessen symptoms, or as supplements to improve therapy of established treatments, especially those for chronic conditions. These scenarios present different challenges to prove efficacy. However, there is a niche for dairy products that can provide passive protection. These products may be restricted in target but are easier to produce and to apply quality control procedures. Regulations pertaining to food labelling, safety and health claims are changing and becoming ever more demanding. Misleading information will be scrutinised. Therefore, to satisfy anticipated regulations, future research should focus on defining the abilities of ingredients to affect the health and wellness of consumers.
This review outlines techniques, such as use of germ-free animals, faecal stream diversion, biliary tract diversion and use of antibiotics, which demonstrated that intestinal bacteria could play an important role in carcinogenesis. Studies in animals and humans show that intestinal bacteria and their metabolites may produce, activate and deactivate carcinogens, and that these processes may be modulated by dietary components. Oral administration of certain probiotic bacteria to animals and humans is associated with a number of anti-carcinogenic actions, including, reduction of colonic pH, immunostimulation, anti-mutagenicity and reduction in the activity of enzymes responsible for the conversion of procarciogens to carcinogens. Finally, studies are outlined that show probiotic bacteria and prebiotics suppress tumour development in animals, and epidemiological studies that show consumption of fermented milk products may help reduce the risk of cancer at a number of sites.
Microencapsulation involves the packaging of a component within a secondary material. The potential use of microencapsulation for increasing or reducing levels of selected components in milk and dairy products and protection for functional food components to enable their sustained or targeted release is described. It has a role in the development of functional dairy foods.
This paper is based on a presentation to the Milkfat Update Conference organised by the Australian Food Industry Science Centre with support from the Dairy Research and Development Corporation and held at Werribee, Victoria, on February 27 and 28, 1996. This paper has not been peer reviewed.
The bottom-line case for investment in energy and greenhouse reduction measures is a challenge for manufacturers in the Australian context, where there is cheap and plentiful supply of energy. Sustainable energy solutions, however, are often associated with broader economic and other benefits, particularly in sectors such as the dairy industry, where there is significant impetus to improve energy use, as well as productivity, water and waste management. Capitalising on these opportunities requires identifying the available options, particularly solutions that integrate other aspects of sustainable plant operation. This paper presents a case study of sustainable energy solutions in the dairy industry set against the backdrop of the current pattern of energy use in the Australian manufacturing sector.
New practices have been introduced for the production of milk such as robotic milking and organic farming. Their impact on the safety of milk has not been fully elucidated. Also, new pathogens have emerged or we have seen the re-emergence of old foes. The impact of these on the safety of milk is discussed. It has been estimated that dairy products contribute 9% of total calories to the US food supply and that these dairy foods supply Americans with significant amounts of minerals (73% of calcium, 33% of phosphorus, 16% of magnesium), vitamins (17% of vitamin A, 6% of vitamin B1, 31% of vitamin B2, 10% of vitamin B6, 21% of vitamin B12) and 19% of protein (Miller et al. 2000). Thus, milk and milk products are an important part of the human diet and their safety and quality need to be assured.
Three Bifidobacterium bifidum strains, isolated from the stools of infants fed breast milk exclusively, and four standard strains of the same organism, three from the National Collection of Dairy Organisms, Reading, UK and one from the National Collection of Dairy Organisms, NDRI, Karnal, India, were examined for their suitability in the manufacture of fermented milks. Suitability was assessed on the basis of the technological criteria of titratable and volatile acid production, diacetyl and acetoin production and proteolytic activity, and the dietetic criteria of lactic acid production, microbial growth and antibiotic activity against Shigella dysenteriae. On the basis of dietetic criteria, two of the UK standard strains, NCDO 1452 and NCDO 1454, and the Indian strain, NDRI, were found to be the most suitable. When both dietetic and technological criteria were considered, strain NDRI was the best for the manufacture of B. bifidum-based fermented milks.
The requirements for an efficient cooler are discussed with reference to type and design, and in particular to the size of tubes. A table of allowable milk flows is presented for a number of cooler types and a range of cooling water flows. The cooling-water pressure requirements are discussed and typical figures given.
The inhibition of acid production in a cheese vat can be due to several different factors. Apart from bacteriophage, the principal inhibitory substances encountered in commercial practice are penicillin and nisin. The bacteriophage relationships of most Australian starter cultures are now well established (1). The sensitivity of these cultures to the two other inhibitors form the subject of this investigation.