SELECT COUNT(*) c, p.product_id, (SELECT AVG(rating) AS total FROM #__mijoshop_review r1 WHERE r1.product_id = p.product_id AND r1.status = '1' GROUP BY r1.product_id) AS rating, (SELECT price FROM #__mijoshop_product_discount pd2 WHERE pd2.product_id = p.product_id AND pd2.customer_group_id = '1' AND pd2.quantity = '1' AND ((pd2.date_start = '0000-00-00' OR pd2.date_start < NOW()) AND (pd2.date_end = '0000-00-00' OR pd2.date_end > NOW())) ORDER BY pd2.priority ASC, pd2.price ASC LIMIT 1) AS discount, (SELECT price FROM #__mijoshop_product_special ps WHERE ps.product_id = p.product_id AND ps.customer_group_id = '1' AND ((ps.date_start = '0000-00-00' OR ps.date_start < NOW()) AND (ps.date_end = '0000-00-00' OR ps.date_end > NOW())) ORDER BY ps.priority ASC, ps.price ASC LIMIT 1) AS special FROM #__mijoshop_product_to_category p2c LEFT JOIN #__mijoshop_product p ON (p2c.product_id = p.product_id) LEFT JOIN #__mijoshop_product_description pd ON (p.product_id = pd.product_id) LEFT JOIN #__mijoshop_product_to_store p2s ON (p.product_id = p2s.product_id) WHERE pd.language_id = '1' AND p.status = '1' AND p.date_available <= NOW() AND p2s.store_id = '0' AND p2c.category_id = '28' GROUP BY p.product_id ORDER BY LCASE(pd.name), p.product_id DESC, LCASE(pd.name) DESC
Authors: Duncan A. Rouch, Peter Roupas and Hubert Roginski
A statistical analysis was performed on results produced by a range of methods used to calculate the value of the protein content of infant formulae that were quoted in a report by the European Commission (2003, Report of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Revision of Essential Requirements of Infant Formulae and Follow-on Formulae). This report recommended that the nitrogen conversion value be reduced from 6.38 to 6.25. It appears that the data presented in the report do not support this recommendation. Nevertheless, the report's data underscore the importance of true protein and Non-Protein Nitrogen analyses of milk products. For Australia to gain the most benefit from true protein analysis, a number of standards will need to be revised.
Authors: Nivedita Datta, Anthony J.Elliott, Melinda L. Perkins and Hilton C. Deeth
UHT processing of milk and its subsequent storage causesseveral changes which affect the shelf-life of UHT milkalthough it remains 'commercially sterile'. These changesinclude whey protein denaturation, protein-protein interaction,lactose-protein interaction, isomerisation of lactose, Maillardbrowning, sulphydryl compound formation, formation of arange of carbonyl and other flavoursome compounds, andformation of insoluble substances. They ultimately reduce thequality and limit the shelf life of UHT milk throughdevelopment of off-flavours, fat separation, age gelation andsedimentation.The extent of these changes depends on many factors, amajor one being the type of UHT heating. This reviewcompares the effect heating milk by direct and indirect modeson various aspects of processing and quality of UHT milk.
Ultrafiltration of defatted whey clarified by microfiltration has been studied using a laboratory rig and a 4-stage industrial plant equipped with M5 Carbosep inorganic membranes. Flux versus transmembrane pressure characteristics did not reveal limiting flux even at a moderate tangential flow rate of 4.5 m s-1st UF stage), irreversible fouling caused by precipitation of minerals within the membrane greatly contributed to UP performance decrease with time at natural feed pH (6.4) and up to higher pH (7.0). When the feed used was prepared with a low mineral content, proteins appeared to be less fouling (adsoption and concentration polarisation) at near neutral and alkaline pH.
This paper is based on a presentation at the 'Issues in Cheese Microbiology' symposium, held on December 3, 1996, at the Gilbert Chandler College, Werribee, under the auspices of the Australian Starter Culture Research Centre.
Authors: N.H. Hancock, I. McKinnon and A.D. Maxwell
Results from the application of novel high-precision conductivitymeasurement to the preparation of bulk starter indicates thatthere exists:
a universal relationship between change in conductivity andchange in pH; and
a universal and close-to-linear relationship between changein conductivity and titratable acidity.
These results are supported by a simple numerical model of theCa2+, PO43-, HPO42-and H2PO4 - equilibria for standardised milksup to the point of complete solubilisation of the colloidal calciumphosphate.
The urea content of milk of different species of animals in Lahore, Pakistan was determined. Buffalo's milk contained the highest and sheep's milk the lowest amount of urea. The urea content of goat's and cow's milk was almost equal. The urea content of bulk milk supplied by gawalas (milk vendors) ranged from 8.8-12.4 mg/100 mL which was significantly less than milk of all the species of animals under study. Pasteurization, boiling, and preparation of khoya and yoghurt resulted in loss of urea.
Several methods were identified for minimising heavy coagulum formation in lactic casein manufacture. Agitation during coagulation could either increase or decrease heavy coagulum formation depending on the timing and geometry of agitation. Agitation during coagulation reduced setting times probably because clumped starter cells were maintained in supension where acid production was faster. Homogenising skim milk at 230 bar before starter inoculation had no significant effect on heavy coagulum formation. However, lower pressure homongenisation or colloid milling during incubation at any pH below 6.6 were both successful in virtually eliminating heavy coagulum formation, presumably because clumps of cells were broken up and thus prevented from setting. Higher incubation temperatures, e.g. 30°C, increased heavy coagulum formation. Separation of skim milk from whole milk at 5°C did not reduce heavy coagulum formation compared to separation at 55°C.
Vitamin fortification of infant formulas is allowed within defined ranges to meet the nutritional requirements of the non-breast-fed infant and is subject to rigorous regulatory control of composition and labelling. Such declaration must account for the potential multiplicity of supplemental and endogenously occurring forms of individual vitamins present in milk and formula.
Authors: M.A. Augustin, L.J. Cheng, O. Glagovskaia, P.T. Clarke and A. Lawrence
Set and stirred yogurts were made with skim milk solids or80:20 blends of skim milk solids and sweet whey proteinconcentrate (WPC) powders or liquid concentrates containingbetween 25-64 g crude protein/100 g solids (WPC25 -WPC64). Yogurts with improved consistency were obtainedfrom blends of skim milk and sweet whey protein concentratesolids with similar or lower protein content than yogurtscontaining skim milk solids only. Substitution of 20% of theskim milk solids with WPC25 - WPC56 solids increased thegel strength of set yogurt, the viscosity of stirred yogurt anddecreased whey drained from both types of yogurt containingan equivalent amount of total milk solids. However, substitutionof 20% of the skim milk solids of yogurt with higherprotein content WPC solids (WPC63, WPC 64) had variableeffects on yogurt properties, depending on the batch of wheyused for preparation of WPCs as well as the total solids of theyogurt milk. The results suggested that the ability of proteinsto contribute to viscosity and gel development in yogurts wasimpaired when milks were not sufficiently stable to the heattreatment applied prior to the addition of the cultures.
The manufacture of butter using the Evaporative Treatment of Cream process showed that a manufacturer could increase profits because more butter (0.7%) could be produced from the same quantity of milkfat and less steam (70%) was required for treating the cream. The increased yield was due to a higher milk solids-not-fat in the butter and the lower steam consumption derived from evaporator design characteristics. It was found that slight adjustment to churning temperatures was necessary when using a continuous buttermaker and that the initial moisture of the butter was lower.
Authors: J.A. Fly, P.T. Clarke, H. du Parquet, S. Toyne and M.A.Augustin
The effects of addition of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL), a chemical acidulant, at levels of 0.025 - 0.075g GDL/g milk solids non-fat into yogurt milk (9.5-14% milk solids non-fat) were examined. Use of GDL in combination with yogurt cultures reduced fermentation time and increased gel strength of set skim milk yogurts made from fresh milk, fresh milk fortified with skim milk powder or reconstituted milk. The effects of GDL addition were dependent on the level of GDL and the milk solids content of the yogurt milk.