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Articles

True protein value of milk and dairy products

True protein value of milk and dairy products

Authors: Duncan A. Rouch, Peter Roupas and Hubert Roginski

A statistical analysis was performed on results produced by a range of methods used to calculate the value of the protein content of infant formulae that were quoted in a report by the European Commission (2003, Report of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Revision of Essential Requirements of Infant Formulae and Follow-on Formulae). This report recommended that the nitrogen conversion value be reduced from 6.38 to 6.25. It appears that the data presented in the report do not support this recommendation. Nevertheless, the report's data underscore the importance of true protein and Non-Protein Nitrogen analyses of milk products. For Australia to gain the most benefit from true protein analysis, a number of standards will need to be revised.

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UHT milk - standards and quality assurance

UHT milk - standards and quality assurance

Authors: J.G. Zadow

An industry information article summarising the standards and quality assurance for UHT milk.

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Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment of milk: comparison of direct and indirect modes of heating

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment of milk: comparison of direct and indirect modes of heating

Authors: Nivedita Datta, Anthony J.Elliott, Melinda L. Perkins and Hilton C. Deeth

UHT processing of milk and its subsequent storage causes several changes which affect the shelf-life of UHT milk although it remains 'commercially sterile'. These changes include whey protein denaturation, protein-protein interaction, lactose-protein interaction, isomerisation of lactose, Maillard browning, sulphydryl compound formation, formation of a range of carbonyl and other flavoursome compounds, and formation of insoluble substances. They ultimately reduce the quality and limit the shelf life of UHT milk through development of off-flavours, fat separation, age gelation and sedimentation. The extent of these changes depends on many factors, a major one being the type of UHT heating. This review compares the effect heating milk by direct and indirect modes on various aspects of processing and quality of UHT milk.

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Ultrafiltration of defatted whey: influence of some physicochemical characteristics

Ultrafiltration of defatted whey: influence of some physicochemical characteristics

Authors: G. Daufin and F. Michel

Ultrafiltration of defatted whey clarified by microfiltration has been studied using a laboratory rig and a 4-stage industrial plant equipped with M5 Carbosep inorganic membranes. Flux versus transmembrane pressure characteristics did not reveal limiting flux even at a moderate tangential flow rate of 4.5 m s-1st UF stage), irreversible fouling caused by precipitation of minerals within the membrane greatly contributed to UP performance decrease with time at natural feed pH (6.4) and up to higher pH (7.0). When the feed used was prepared with a low mineral content, proteins appeared to be less fouling (adsoption and concentration polarisation) at near neutral and alkaline pH.

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Understanding and controlling mould spoilage in cheese

Understanding and controlling mould spoilage in cheese

Authors: A.D. Hocking

This paper is based on a presentation at the 'Issues in Cheese Microbiology' symposium, held on December 3, 1996, at the Gilbert Chandler College, Werribee, under the auspices of the Australian Starter Culture Research Centre.

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Universal acidity - conductivity relations in commercial bulk starter production

Universal acidity - conductivity relations in commercial bulk starter production

Authors: N.H. Hancock, I. McKinnon and A.D. Maxwell

Results from the application of novel high-precision conductivity measurement to the preparation of bulk starter indicates that there exists:

a universal relationship between change in conductivity and change in pH; and

a universal and close-to-linear relationship between change in conductivity and titratable acidity.

These results are supported by a simple numerical model of the Ca2+, PO4 3-, HPO4 2-and H2PO4 - equilibria for standardised milks up to the point of complete solubilisation of the colloidal calcium phosphate.

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Unsaponifiable Fraction of Butterfat: Contamination with Phthalic Acid Esters

Unsaponifiable Fraction of Butterfat: Contamination with Phthalic Acid Esters

An original article discussing the composition of the unsaponifiable fraction of butterfat together with vegetable oils and animal fat deposits.

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Urea content of milk and milk products

Urea content of milk and milk products

Authors: N. Khan, Rashida Zaman and M. Elahi

The urea content of milk of different species of animals in Lahore, Pakistan was determined. Buffalo's milk contained the highest and sheep's milk the lowest amount of urea. The urea content of goat's and cow's milk was almost equal. The urea content of bulk milk supplied by gawalas (milk vendors) ranged from 8.8-12.4 mg/100 mL which was significantly less than milk of all the species of animals under study. Pasteurization, boiling, and preparation of khoya and yoghurt resulted in loss of urea.

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Use of a Recording Spectrophotometer for Amido Black Milk Protein Determinations

Use of a Recording Spectrophotometer for Amido Black Milk Protein Determinations

Authors: J.C. Radcliffe

A technical note on the use of a recording spectrophotometer for amido black milk protein determinations.

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Use of agitation, homogenisation and colloid milling to minimise heavy coagulum formation in lactic casein manufacture

Use of agitation, homogenisation and colloid milling to minimise heavy coagulum formation in lactic casein manufacture

Authors: E.J. Gosling, M.G. Weeks and P.A. Munro

Several methods were identified for minimising heavy coagulum formation in lactic casein manufacture. Agitation during coagulation could either increase or decrease heavy coagulum formation depending on the timing and geometry of agitation. Agitation during coagulation reduced setting times probably because clumped starter cells were maintained in supension where acid production was faster. Homogenising skim milk at 230 bar before starter inoculation had no significant effect on heavy coagulum formation. However, lower pressure homongenisation or colloid milling during incubation at any pH below 6.6 were both successful in virtually eliminating heavy coagulum formation, presumably because clumps of cells were broken up and thus prevented from setting. Higher incubation temperatures, e.g. 30°C, increased heavy coagulum formation. Separation of skim milk from whole milk at 5°C did not reduce heavy coagulum formation compared to separation at 55°C.

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Use of an optical biosensor to determine water-soluble vitamins in infant formula

Use of an optical biosensor to determine water-soluble vitamins in infant formula

Authors: H.E. Indyk and E.L. Filonzi

Vitamin fortification of infant formulas is allowed within defined ranges to meet the nutritional requirements of the non-breast-fed infant and is subject to rigorous regulatory control of composition and labelling. Such declaration must account for the potential multiplicity of supplemental and endogenously occurring forms of individual vitamins present in milk and formula.

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Use of blends of skim milk and sweet whey protein concentrates in reconstituted yogurt

Use of blends of skim milk and sweet whey protein concentrates in reconstituted yogurt

Authors: M.A. Augustin, L.J. Cheng, O. Glagovskaia, P.T. Clarke and A. Lawrence

Set and stirred yogurts were made with skim milk solids or 80:20 blends of skim milk solids and sweet whey protein concentrate (WPC) powders or liquid concentrates containing between 25-64 g crude protein/100 g solids (WPC25 - WPC64). Yogurts with improved consistency were obtained from blends of skim milk and sweet whey protein concentrate solids with similar or lower protein content than yogurts containing skim milk solids only. Substitution of 20% of the skim milk solids with WPC25 - WPC56 solids increased the gel strength of set yogurt, the viscosity of stirred yogurt and decreased whey drained from both types of yogurt containing an equivalent amount of total milk solids. However, substitution of 20% of the skim milk solids of yogurt with higher protein content WPC solids (WPC63, WPC 64) had variable effects on yogurt properties, depending on the batch of whey used for preparation of WPCs as well as the total solids of the yogurt milk. The results suggested that the ability of proteins to contribute to viscosity and gel development in yogurts was impaired when milks were not sufficiently stable to the heat treatment applied prior to the addition of the cultures.

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Use of Calcium Co-Precipitates in Processed Cheese

Use of Calcium Co-Precipitates in Processed Cheese

Authors: M.A. Thomas

An original article studying the effect of co-precipitate on body and texture, on the melting quality, and on pH of processed cheese.

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Use of Evaporative Treatment of Creat (ETC) to Increase Butter Yield

Use of Evaporative Treatment of Creat (ETC) to Increase Butter Yield

Authors: R. Con Foo, G.J. McDonald and B.D. Dixon

The manufacture of butter using the Evaporative Treatment of Cream process showed that a manufacturer could increase profits because more butter (0.7%) could be produced from the same quantity of milkfat and less steam (70%) was required for treating the cream. The increased yield was due to a higher milk solids-not-fat in the butter and the lower steam consumption derived from evaporator design characteristics. It was found that slight adjustment to churning temperatures was necessary when using a continuous buttermaker and that the initial moisture of the butter was lower.

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Use of glucono-delta-lactone in the manufacture of yogurt

Use of glucono-delta-lactone in the manufacture of yogurt

Authors: J.A. Fly, P.T. Clarke, H. du Parquet, S. Toyne and M.A.Augustin

The effects of addition of glucono-delta-lactone (GDL), a chemical acidulant, at levels of 0.025 - 0.075g GDL/g milk solids non-fat into yogurt milk (9.5-14% milk solids non-fat) were examined. Use of GDL in combination with yogurt cultures reduced fermentation time and increased gel strength of set skim milk yogurts made from fresh milk, fresh milk fortified with skim milk powder or reconstituted milk. The effects of GDL addition were dependent on the level of GDL and the milk solids content of the yogurt milk.

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