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An average freezing point value of -0.546°C was determined for 500 factory milks sampled during a seven year period.
Strict precautions were taken to avoid any adulteration of milk from factory sources. During this period freezing points varied from -0.534°C to 0.560°C, with the high results prevalent during the dry months.
Wide variations were found from day-to-day, and between different strains of starter bacteria, in the ability of milk, both raw and heated to 98°C, to support acid production. It was concluded that milk contains both inhibitory and stimulatory substances, that some of these are destroyed or produced by heating and that cultures differ widely in their relative sensitivity to these factors, which themselves vary in proportion from day to day. These variations do not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. A study by various methods of the role of agglutinins and creaming on inhibition shows that with certain cultures creaming, but not agglutination per se, plays a very large part in inhibition in raw whole milk as determined by activity tests. An acetone extract prepared from colostrum was shown to contain agglutinin and peroxidise. Addition of this extract to activity tests performed in heat-treated milk caused inhibition of the same cultures which were inhibited in raw whole milk. There is evidence that the Strept. diacetilactis strains tested are susceptible to yet another heat-liable factor not present in the extract. Detailed and extensive filed observations will be necessary to link these and other recent laboratory findings with occurrences of slow-acid production in cheese and casein factories.
Observations of a group of heifers and aged cows show that there is greater variability between a corresponding pair of quarters in aged dairy cows than in heifers and that this may be associated with a higher incidence of sub-clinical mastitis.
Authors: A.M. Mortazavian, M.R. Ehsani, A. Azizi, S.H. Razavi, S.M. Mousavi, S. Sohrabvandi and J.A. Reinheimer
The effects of microencapsulation of AB-type culture (Lactobacillusacidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) with calciumalginate on cell survival in Iranian yogurt drink (Doogh) during storageat 4°C for 42 days, as well as under simulated gastrointestinalconditions, were studied. The pH of the product at the beginningof storage was 4.53 and the final pH at the end of storage were4.52 and 3.78 for the samples containing encapsulated and freecells, respectively. The acetic acid content in the encapsulated-cell containingDoogh increased by 0.01% (from 0.05 to 0.06%) duringthe storage period, whereas for free-cell-containing Doogh theincrease was 0.04% (from 0.05 to 0.09%). At day 42, the viablecounts of L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria in the samples containingencapsulated cells were 5.5 and 4.0 log cycles higher than thosecontaining free cells, respectively. To evaluate the protective impactof encapsulation on cell survival in in vivo situations, the product wassubjected to three simulated gastrointestinal conditions, includingextreme conditions (pH 1.5, 90 min/2% bile, 90 min), intermediateconditions (pH 1.5, 90 min/1% bile, 90 min) and normal conditions,i.e. the situation in the gastrointestinal tract of a normal healthyperson after the consumption of a probiotic-containing dairy drink,when the stomach has not been free for a relatively long time (pH2.0, 30 min/0.6% bile, 60 min). The viability of the probiotic cellsincreased from 0.6% and 0.2% (L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria,respectively) as free cells to 18.0% and 9.5% under the extremegastrointestinal conditions, after encapsulation. Under normalgastrointestinal conditions, the cell survival rates were 16.1% for L.acidophilus and 21% for bifidobacteria before encapsulation, and26.3 and 34.0% (L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria, respectively)after encapsulation.
The investigation of various media formulations, using pure cultures and commercial yogurts, provided the basis for selecting suitable methods to enumerate probiotic cultures. Full and reduced-fat yogurts from four manufacturers of commercial probiotic yogurts were sampled one day post manufacture and analysed for constitutive microflora. Samples were stored at 4°C and 10°C, with subsequent sampling and testing at approximately two weekly intervals, until product 'use-by' date was reached. Enumeration methods utilised M17 agar for streptococci, MRS pH 5.3 agar for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, MRS + 0.2% ox bile for L. acidophilus, and Bifidus-blood agar for bifidobacteria. For product held at 4°C, Streptococcus thermophilus survival was universally highest in all four products, with lowest counts being 4.1 x 108 cfu/g after six weeks. A single yogurt contained L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which also survived well. Minimum counts were 7.4 x 106 cfu/g at this temperature. L. acidophilus viability varied widely. One product retained levels of >107, another >106 cfu/g. A third reduced slowly, but maintained levels of >105 cfu/g. No viable organisms (<103 cfu/g), were detected in the fourth product. Of the three products incorporating bifidobacteria, one maintained high levels (>106 cfu/g), another showed a steep decline from 1.5 x 105 to <103 cfu/g within two weeks post manufacture, and no viable cultures (<103 cfu/g) were detected in the third. The effect of storage at 10°C had little effect on the viability of all organisms, however, lower pH levels resulted in most cases. Similarly, fat levels had no noticeable effect on the survival of cultures.
Authors: A. Lawrence, M.A. Augustin and P.T. Clarke
Recombined sweetened condensed milk (RSCM) is made by combining skim milk powder, milkfat and sugar, homogenising the mixture and subjecting it to pasteurisation. In this study, the effects of homogenisation and pasteurisation conditions used in RSCM manufacture on the viscosity of RSCM made from commercial milk powders given different preheat treatments during powder manufacture were examined.
Authors: L.J. Cheng, R.A. Birkett, M.A. Augustin and P.T. Clarke
The viscosity of laboratory-prepared 73% total solids (TS) reconstituted skim (26% milk solids non-fat, MSNF : 47% sucrose) and 74% TS recombined full-cream (20% MSNF : 8% fat : 46% sucrose) sweetened condensed milk concentrates was examined as a function of the preheat treatment applied during skim milk powder manufacture and date of powder manufacture. The preheat treatments applied to skim milk during powder manufacture were 72°C for 30 s, 75°C for 2 min, 80°C for 30 s or 1, 2 or 5 min, 85°C for 2 or 30 min or 90°C for 2 min. Preheat treatment and date of powder manufacture had significant effects (p<0.05) on the viscosity of both reconstituted and recombined sweetened condensed milk concentrates. Marked increases in viscosity were observed when the extent of whey protein denaturation in the powder was >50%.
Cheddar cheese was manufactured using whole milk and skim milk. The levels of volatile fatty acids present in these cheeses were determined by gas chromatography during maturation. Acetic acid production was very similar in both types of cheese but production of all other fatty acids was markedly reduced in the skim milk cheese. This indicated that lipolysis was of far greater importance than protein or carbohydrate breakdown in volatile fatty acid production in Cheddar cheese.
Authors: Aikaterini K. Georgala, Ioannis G. Kandarakis, Stelios E. Kaminarides and Emmanuel M. Anifantakis
The volatile free fatty acids (VFFA) content of feta and white-brined cheeses trade in the market of Athens, Greece, was studied. For this, 16 feta cheese samples (eight with piquant taste and eight non-piquant) 24 cast and eight structure white-brined cheeses were examined for their VFFA content. From the statistical analysis of the experimental measurements, significant differences between piquant and non-piquant feta cheese, as well as between feta and white-brined cheese, were found. Feta cheese contained significantly higher quantities of acetic, butyric, caproic and caprylic acids than white-brined cheeses. Significant differences were also found between the non-piquant and the piquant feta cheese samples in their butyric, caproic and caprylic acids content, while their acetic acid content was similar. Cast and structure white-brined cheeses showed similar VFFA profile.
Small-scale speciality cheese factories, in association with model dairy farms, can serve an important role in marketing for the dairy industry. As these enterprises expand they are required to manage increasing volumes of farm and factory waste - volumes that can overtax waste management systems. In order to determine the needs of the industry a survey was conducted, with the information gained being used to model waste management system requirements for sustainable expansion. The results of the survey revealed a marked diversity in these enterprises, but the small number of case studies led to qualitative, rather than quantitative, analysis. The need for integration of water and wastewater management with farm planning was an essential outcome of the study which emphasised the need for measurement, performance monitoring and self-regulation; exploration of prospects for waste minimisation, resource conservation and recycling of both wastewater and biosolids was also deemed necessary.
The aim of this paper is to discuss the principal issues related to water quality and food production from the view of a food producer. Water has a number of interactions with food producers: it is used in primary production, particularly for irrigation; it is a component of the product (ingredient/raw material); it is a processing aid; and it is an important factor contributing to employee health. To achieve sustainable water management, both the quantity and quality of water need to be considered. Mechanisms to reduce water demand in the food industry are similar to those that apply to urban water supply, thus infrastructure improvements and reduction in consumption by increased efficiency. The need exists for food companies to have a framework based upon sound science to allow them to assess the potential for optimising water use.