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Articles

Variation in the Freezing Point of Factory Milk

Variation in the Freezing Point of Factory Milk

Authors: V.C. Tucker

An average freezing point value of -0.546°C was determined for 500 factory milks sampled during a seven year period.

Strict precautions were taken to avoid any adulteration of milk from factory sources. During this period freezing points varied from -0.534°C to 0.560°C, with the high results prevalent during the dry months.

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Variations in lactic acid production in milk

Variations in lactic acid production in milk

Authors: Barbara P. Keogh

Wide variations were found from day-to-day, and between different strains of starter bacteria, in the ability of milk, both raw and heated to 98°C, to support acid production. It was concluded that milk contains both inhibitory and stimulatory substances, that some of these are destroyed or produced by heating and that cultures differ widely in their relative sensitivity to these factors, which themselves vary in proportion from day to day. These variations do not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. A study by various methods of the role of agglutinins and creaming on inhibition shows that with certain cultures creaming, but not agglutination per se, plays a very large part in inhibition in raw whole milk as determined by activity tests. An acetone extract prepared from colostrum was shown to contain agglutinin and peroxidise. Addition of this extract to activity tests performed in heat-treated milk caused inhibition of the same cultures which were inhibited in raw whole milk. There is evidence that the Strept. diacetilactis strains tested are susceptible to yet another heat-liable factor not present in the extract. Detailed and extensive filed observations will be necessary to link these and other recent laboratory findings with occurrences of slow-acid production in cheese and casein factories.

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Variations in the CLA content of New Zealand milkfat

Variations in the CLA content of New Zealand milkfat

Authors: A.K.H MacGibbon, Y.E.H. van der Does, B.Y. Fong, N.P. Robinson and N.A. Thomson

Poster presentation on variations in the CLA content of New Zealand milkfat.

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Variations of Milk Production in Quarters of Lactating Cows

Variations of Milk Production in Quarters of Lactating Cows

Authors: J.T. Feagan and A.T. Griffin

Observations of a group of heifers and aged cows show that there is greater variability between a corresponding pair of quarters in aged dairy cows than in heifers and that this may be associated with a higher incidence of sub-clinical mastitis.

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Viability of calcium-alginate-microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in Iranian yogurt drink (Doogh) during refrigerated storage and under simulated gastrointestinal conditions

Viability of calcium-alginate-microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in Iranian yogurt drink (Doogh) during refrigerated storage and under simulated gastrointestinal conditions

Authors: A.M. Mortazavian, M.R. Ehsani, A. Azizi, S.H. Razavi, S.M. Mousavi, S. Sohrabvandi and J.A. Reinheimer

The effects of microencapsulation of AB-type culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) with calcium alginate on cell survival in Iranian yogurt drink (Doogh) during storage at 4°C for 42 days, as well as under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, were studied. The pH of the product at the beginning of storage was 4.53 and the final pH at the end of storage were 4.52 and 3.78 for the samples containing encapsulated and free cells, respectively. The acetic acid content in the encapsulated-cell containing Doogh increased by 0.01% (from 0.05 to 0.06%) during the storage period, whereas for free-cell-containing Doogh the increase was 0.04% (from 0.05 to 0.09%). At day 42, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria in the samples containing encapsulated cells were 5.5 and 4.0 log cycles higher than those containing free cells, respectively. To evaluate the protective impact of encapsulation on cell survival in in vivo situations, the product was subjected to three simulated gastrointestinal conditions, including extreme conditions (pH 1.5, 90 min/2% bile, 90 min), intermediate conditions (pH 1.5, 90 min/1% bile, 90 min) and normal conditions, i.e. the situation in the gastrointestinal tract of a normal healthy person after the consumption of a probiotic-containing dairy drink, when the stomach has not been free for a relatively long time (pH 2.0, 30 min/0.6% bile, 60 min). The viability of the probiotic cells increased from 0.6% and 0.2% (L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria, respectively) as free cells to 18.0% and 9.5% under the extreme gastrointestinal conditions, after encapsulation. Under normal gastrointestinal conditions, the cell survival rates were 16.1% for L. acidophilus and 21% for bifidobacteria before encapsulation, and 26.3 and 34.0% (L. acidophilus and bifidobacteria, respectively) after encapsulation.

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Viability of probiotic cultures in commercial Australian yogurts

Viability of probiotic cultures in commercial Australian yogurts

Authors: N. Micanel, I.N. Haynes and M.J. Playne

The investigation of various media formulations, using pure cultures and commercial yogurts, provided the basis for selecting suitable methods to enumerate probiotic cultures. Full and reduced-fat yogurts from four manufacturers of commercial probiotic yogurts were sampled one day post manufacture and analysed for constitutive microflora. Samples were stored at 4°C and 10°C, with subsequent sampling and testing at approximately two weekly intervals, until product 'use-by' date was reached. Enumeration methods utilised M17 agar for streptococci, MRS pH 5.3 agar for Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, MRS + 0.2% ox bile for L. acidophilus, and Bifidus-blood agar for bifidobacteria. For product held at 4°C, Streptococcus thermophilus survival was universally highest in all four products, with lowest counts being 4.1 x 108 cfu/g after six weeks. A single yogurt contained L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which also survived well. Minimum counts were 7.4 x 106 cfu/g at this temperature. L. acidophilus viability varied widely. One product retained levels of >107, another >106 cfu/g. A third reduced slowly, but maintained levels of >105 cfu/g. No viable organisms (<103 cfu/g), were detected in the fourth product. Of the three products incorporating bifidobacteria, one maintained high levels (>106 cfu/g), another showed a steep decline from 1.5 x 105 to <103 cfu/g within two weeks post manufacture, and no viable cultures (<103 cfu/g) were detected in the third. The effect of storage at 10°C had little effect on the viability of all organisms, however, lower pH levels resulted in most cases. Similarly, fat levels had no noticeable effect on the survival of cultures.

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Viscosity of recombined sweetened condensed milks

Viscosity of recombined sweetened condensed milks

Authors: A. Lawrence, M.A. Augustin and P.T. Clarke

Recombined sweetened condensed milk (RSCM) is made by combining skim milk powder, milkfat and sugar, homogenising the mixture and subjecting it to pasteurisation. In this study, the effects of homogenisation and pasteurisation conditions used in RSCM manufacture on the viscosity of RSCM made from commercial milk powders given different preheat treatments during powder manufacture were examined.

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Viscosity of sweetened condensed milk concentrates: effects of preheat treatment applied during powder manufacture

Viscosity of sweetened condensed milk concentrates: effects of preheat treatment applied during powder manufacture

Authors: L.J. Cheng, R.A. Birkett, M.A. Augustin and P.T. Clarke

The viscosity of laboratory-prepared 73% total solids (TS) reconstituted skim (26% milk solids non-fat, MSNF : 47% sucrose) and 74% TS recombined full-cream (20% MSNF : 8% fat : 46% sucrose) sweetened condensed milk concentrates was examined as a function of the preheat treatment applied during skim milk powder manufacture and date of powder manufacture. The preheat treatments applied to skim milk during powder manufacture were 72°C for 30 s, 75°C for 2 min, 80°C for 30 s or 1, 2 or 5 min, 85°C for 2 or 30 min or 90°C for 2 min. Preheat treatment and date of powder manufacture had significant effects (p<0.05) on the viscosity of both reconstituted and recombined sweetened condensed milk concentrates. Marked increases in viscosity were observed when the extent of whey protein denaturation in the powder was >50%.

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Volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds in milkfat from grazing dairy cows offered grain and/or fibre supplements in early lactation

Volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds in milkfat from grazing dairy cows offered grain and/or fibre supplements in early lactation

Authors: C. Wijesundera, Z. Shen and D.E. Dalley

Poster presentation on volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds in milkfat from grazing dairy cows offered grain and/or fibre supplements in early lactation.

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Volatile Fatty Acid Production in Cheddar Cheese

Volatile Fatty Acid Production in Cheddar Cheese

Authors: J.R. Dulley and P.A. Grieve

Cheddar cheese was manufactured using whole milk and skim milk. The levels of volatile fatty acids present in these cheeses were determined by gas chromatography during maturation. Acetic acid production was very similar in both types of cheese but production of all other fatty acids was markedly reduced in the skim milk cheese. This indicated that lipolysis was of far greater importance than protein or carbohydrate breakdown in volatile fatty acid production in Cheddar cheese.

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Volatile free fatty acid content of feta and white-brined cheeses

Volatile free fatty acid content of feta and white-brined cheeses

Authors: Aikaterini K. Georgala, Ioannis G. Kandarakis, Stelios E. Kaminarides and Emmanuel M. Anifantakis

The volatile free fatty acids (VFFA) content of feta and white-brined cheeses trade in the market of Athens, Greece, was studied. For this, 16 feta cheese samples (eight with piquant taste and eight non-piquant) 24 cast and eight structure white-brined cheeses were examined for their VFFA content. From the statistical analysis of the experimental measurements, significant differences between piquant and non-piquant feta cheese, as well as between feta and white-brined cheese, were found. Feta cheese contained significantly higher quantities of acetic, butyric, caproic and caprylic acids than white-brined cheeses. Significant differences were also found between the non-piquant and the piquant feta cheese samples in their butyric, caproic and caprylic acids content, while their acetic acid content was similar. Cast and structure white-brined cheeses showed similar VFFA profile.

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Wastewater management and on-farm dairy processing

Wastewater management and on-farm dairy processing

Authors: R.J. Wrigley

Small-scale speciality cheese factories, in association with model dairy farms, can serve an important role in marketing for the dairy industry. As these enterprises expand they are required to manage increasing volumes of farm and factory waste - volumes that can overtax waste management systems. In order to determine the needs of the industry a survey was conducted, with the information gained being used to model waste management system requirements for sustainable expansion. The results of the survey revealed a marked diversity in these enterprises, but the small number of case studies led to qualitative, rather than quantitative, analysis. The need for integration of water and wastewater management with farm planning was an essential outcome of the study which emphasised the need for measurement, performance monitoring and self-regulation; exploration of prospects for waste minimisation, resource conservation and recycling of both wastewater and biosolids was also deemed necessary.

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Water - A food processor's point of view

Water - A food processor's point of view

Authors: Roy M. Kirby

The aim of this paper is to discuss the principal issues related to water quality and food production from the view of a food producer. Water has a number of interactions with food producers: it is used in primary production, particularly for irrigation; it is a component of the product (ingredient/raw material); it is a processing aid; and it is an important factor contributing to employee health. To achieve sustainable water management, both the quantity and quality of water need to be considered. Mechanisms to reduce water demand in the food industry are similar to those that apply to urban water supply, thus infrastructure improvements and reduction in consumption by increased efficiency. The need exists for food companies to have a framework based upon sound science to allow them to assess the potential for optimising water use.

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Water cooling of farm milk in Victoria

Water cooling of farm milk in Victoria

Authors: E. W. Crowley

A discussion on the use and construction of spray water cooling towers in Northern Victoria, to keep milk cool and maintain milk at low temperatures between time of production and treatment.

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Water quality and milk quality

Water quality and milk quality

Authors: R.J. Wrigley, C.R. Dickins and J.W. McDonald

Short presentation on water quality and milk quality.

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