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Articles

Water, chemical and brine recycle or reuse - applying membrane processes

Water, chemical and brine recycle or reuse - applying membrane processes

Authors: B.S. Horton

This paper was presented to the 'Making the most of Membrane Technology' seminar held at University of Melbourne Gilbert Chandler College, Werribee, Victoria, Australia, on November 19-20, 1996. The seminar was sponsored by the Dairy Research and Development Corporation and the Co-operative Research Centre for International Food Manufacture and Packaging Science. This paper has not been peer reviewed.

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Weed taints in Australian dairy produce

Weed taints in Australian dairy produce

Authors: J Conochie

Three weeds, lesser swine cress (Coronopus didymus), peppercress (Lepidium spp.), and turnip weed (Rapistrum ragusom) are responsible for taint in Australian dairy produce on an economically significant scale. Each produces a characteristic taint. None of the many methods of cream treatment studied gives promise of providing a general solution to the weed taints problem. Improvements in cream grading practice would mean better segregation of tainted cream with a consequent reduction in the amount of butter affected. Simple changes in farm practice, such as taking cows off the weeds some hours before milking, are of little effect. The ultimate solution appears to lie in eliminating these annual weeds by the development and use of better pastures and crops which will effectively compete with and prevent the weeds attaining any significant proportion in the herbage. Much could already be achieved by the wider use of established practices - cleaner cultivation of annual row crops such as maize and sorghum, keeping dairy stock off, and preferably ploughing and seeding, row crop stubbles. Although their use on some types of weed country would be clearly uneconomic, hormone-type weedicides provide a very useful method of controlling weeds on cultivated areas.

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Weight loss using meal replacements high in glycomacropeptide-enriched whey powder

Weight loss using meal replacements high in glycomacropeptide-enriched whey powder

Authors: J.B. Keogh and P.M. Clifton

Cholecystokinin (CC K) is a peptide hormone that causes gallbladder contraction and pancreatic enzyme secretion for the digestion of protein and fat. It is also thought to have a role in satiety. It has been reported that glycomacropeptide (GMP) stimulates the release of CC K and may contribute to increased satiety and reduced energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine after six months whether greater weight loss could be achieved with a GMPenriched whey powder meal replacement compared to a skim milk protein powder meal replacement. In a randomised, double blind, parallel design, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absiorptiometry (DEXA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors were measured at baseline and 6 months. The weight loss strategy used meal replacements (MR) containing 33 g protein from GMPenriched- whey-protein-isolate, or skim-milk-protein-powder (SMPP) and 954kJ kJ/sachet. Volunteers were asked to consume 2 MR/day instead of 2 meals for 6 months. One hundred and twenty seven participants (34 men, 99 women, 95.5±15.4 kg, BMI 33.4±3.4 kg/m2, 50.0±12.4 yr) commenced and 82 completed the 6 month study. After 6 months weight loss was 9.5±5.8 vs 11.0±6.0 kg, GMP and SMPP respectively (p<0.001 compared with baseline) with no differences between treatments. Total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased at 6 months (All p<0.01 compared with baseline with no difference between treatments). We conclude that weight loss using dairy protein-based meal replacements achieved a clinically meaningful weight loss with benefics on markers of CVD risk but GMP had no additional effect using this study design.

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Whatever happened to the ultrafiltration of milk?

Whatever happened to the ultrafiltration of milk?

Authors: B.S. Horton

This paper was presented to the 'Making the most of Membrane Technology' seminar held at University of Melbourne Gilbert Chandler College, Werribee, Victoria, Australia, on November 19-20, 1996. The seminar was sponsored by the Dairy Research and Development Corporation and the Co-operative Research Centre for International Food Manufacture and Packaging Science. This paper has not been peer reviewed.

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Where will your industry be 'the day after tomorrow?'

Where will your industry be 'the day after tomorrow?'

Authors: H.L. Bruce

The global dairy industry harvests its sole resource primarily from one source: the cow. In light of the market repercussions caused by bovine spongiform encephalitis, every industry must consider what it would do to sustain its production should its supply chain be compromised. Although other mammals are the obvious choice, developing their production potential would require many years. Ultimate control of the milk protein production environment is available with in vitro culture, with lactoferrin having been produced using transgenic yeast and fungi. Mammary cell culture has the potential to produce all the proteins and lipids synthesised by the mammary gland, but synthesis can only be sustained in vitro for 8 h. Production of milk proteins using transgenic plants or fungi offer more economical alternatives to mammalian cell culture and the recombinant proteins they produce possess structures, stabilities and activities similar to those found in human milk.

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Whey beverage with açai pulp as a food carrier of probiotic bacteria

Whey beverage with açai pulp as a food carrier of probiotic bacteria

Authors: S. S. Zoellner, A. G. Cruz, J.A.F. Faria, H.M.A.Bolini, M. R.L. Moura, L. M.J. Carvalho, A. S. Sant´ana

This research aimed to evaluate the commercial potential of a whey-based dairy beverage containing acai pulp as a food probiotic carrier, as determined by physical-chemical (pH, titratable acidity, total solids, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrates) and sensorial properties (overall acceptance). The analyses for the proximate composition, pH and titratable acidity of the whey beverages indicated no apparent statistical differences (at 5% level) between the control product and that containing acai pulp. In regard to probiotic viability, while the control dairy beverage showed a reduction of one log cycle (106 – 105 CFU/mL) in the population of Bifidobacterium longum Bl-05 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-14 after 21 days of storage, the beverage containing acai pulp showed significantly higher counts (107 and 108 CFU/mL) for both micro-organisms studied (p<0.05). The sensory analysis supported the commercial potential of the acai-containing probiotic whey beverage, with 70% of the scores corresponding to ‘extremely better than the standard’ and ‘slightly better than the standard’.

 

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Whey production and utilization in Oceania

Whey production and utilization in Oceania

Authors: J.G. Zadow

An International Dairy Federation proceedings discussing whey production and utilization in Oceania.

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Whey protein macrostructures

Whey protein macrostructures

Authors: Regine Stockmann, Melissa A. Johnson and Geoffrey W. Smithers

Whey protein-based supramolecular aggregates show great promise as agents for texturisation and structure building in foods (Bryant & McClements 1998). Such structures have been prepared by heating β-lactoglobulin-rich whey protein dispersions under specific conditions of temperature, pH and ionic strength. The study reported here has been directed toward characterisation of additional physicochemical and functional properties of heat modified whey proteins.

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Widespread phages in the Australian dairy industry

Widespread phages in the Australian dairy industry

Authors: M.L. Billinghurst, G.K.Y. Limsowtin and I.B. Powell

Little is understood of the evolution and ecology of bacteriophages that infect starter bacteria. As part of a research program determining what types of phages are present in Australian dairy factories, and the biological and historical relationships between phages found in different factories or at different times in the same factory, we have accumulated a collection of phages that infect lactococcal and streptococcal starter bacteria. These phages have been isolated over a five year period from cheese and yogurt whey samples obtained from factories across Australia. Different phage isolates were compared by examining the fragments obtained when their DNA was cut with sequence-specific enzymes (restriction enzymes). Using electrophoresis of phage DNA restriction fragments, it is possible to compare phages at the genetic level and infer whether two phages have a recent common origin or have come from independent sources, knowledge that can have consequences in the choice of phage control strategies.

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Wrapping Bulk Butter in Polythene Film

Wrapping Bulk Butter in Polythene Film

Authors: N.A. Chant

An original article discussing the replacement of parchment paper with polythene film for wrapping bulk butter.

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Yeasts for cheese flavour

Yeasts for cheese flavour

Authors: S. Das, R.J. Bennett, V.L. Crow, R. Holland and G.J. Manderson

Poster presentation on yeasts for cheese flavour.

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Yeasts in factory brine of feta cheese

Yeasts in factory brine of feta cheese

Authors: S.E. Kaminarides and N.S. Laskos

Eighteen brine samples from six large Greek feta cheese factories were examined. Three samples were taken from each factory at different periods of the year. The examination involved study of the yeast flora of feta cheese brine and also the total bacterial count, the pyschotrophic bacteria count, pH and the brine NaCl concentration. The results showed yeasts were present in all brine samples tested with numbers ranging from 5.5x102 to 3.4x106/mL of brine. One hundred and eighty different yeast colonies were isolated and identified, with the most common species found to be Saccharomyces cerevisiae (36%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (italicus) (23%), Candida famata (17%) and Pichia membranaefaciens (12%). The last two yeasts tolerated high brine NaCl concentrations. The yeasts Candida sphaerica, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida colliculosa, Candida robusta, Saccharomyces exiquus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (chevalieri) and Candida tropicalis were also found. The total bacterial counts in most samples were high (104-108/mL of brine) and the mean values of psychrotrophic bacteria and moulds were 104/mL of brine and 102/mL of brine respectively. The mean pH of brine was 4.6 and NaCl concentration 3.5% w/v.

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Yellow Stain on Filter Discs and its Relationship to Mastitis

Yellow Stain on Filter Discs and its Relationship to Mastitis

Authors: R.J.T. Hoare

The milk from 2256 cows in 35 herds was examined by the sediment test. The presence of a yellow colour on the sediment discs was found to be strongly correlated with the level of mastitis as judged by the Rapid Mastitis Test.

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Yellow Stain on Sediment Discs: 1. Variation of Individual Quarter Milk Samples with Respect to Beta-Carotene Concentration and other Measures of Production Relevant to Yellow Stain Formation

Yellow Stain on Sediment Discs: 1. Variation of Individual Quarter Milk Samples with Respect to Beta-Carotene Concentration and other Measures of Production Relevant to Yellow Stain Formation

Authors: Elizabeth A. Kernohan

A series of experiments was carries out on individual quarter milk samples to elucidate the relationship between the occurrence of yellow stain and a number of production variables.

In the first experiment differences between individual quarters of mastitis-free heifers were assessed in terms of milk yield, butterfat percentage, somatic cell count and B-carotene concentration. Milk yield, total butterfat and B-carotene secretion, together with B-carotene concentration were all significantly higher (P < 0.05) in milk from hind quarters. For this reason treatments were allocated to paired fore and hind quarters in subsequent experiments.

In the second experiment similar measurements on quarter milk samples which gave a positive Rapid Mastitis Test (RMT) score and produced a yellow stain were compared to those obtained from paired quarters of the same cow which were negative with respect to these two tests. The concentration of B-carotene and somatic cell count were significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) in milk producing a yellow stain, while the yield, butterfat percentage and butterfat production were significantly lower (P <0.01, P < 0.05 and P< 0.05). Within samples producing a yellow stain there was a positive correlation (P< 0.01) between the concentration of B-carotene and yellow stain score (r = 0.812). However, the range of B-carotene concentrations in normal milk (1.3 to 14.3 pg/g fat) overlapped that of milk producing a yellow stain (2.6 to 25.4 pg/g fat). Thus it was concluded that a causal relationship did not exist between B-carotene concentration and yellow stain.

In the third experiment quarter milk samples giving positive RMT scores yet not producing a yellow stain were compared to their paired normal controls. Again, milk yield and butterfat production were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and somatic cell count significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the RMT-positive samples, but there was no difference in concentration of B-carotene. Thus it seems reasonable to conclude that somatic cell count is a more sensitive index of factors responsible for reduced milk production than is the presence of yellow stain on a sediment test disc.

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Yellow Stain on Sediment Discs: 2. The Induction of a Sterile Mastitis in Cows and Goats and its Effect on the Incidence of Yellow Stain

Yellow Stain on Sediment Discs: 2. The Induction of a Sterile Mastitis in Cows and Goats and its Effect on the Incidence of Yellow Stain

Authors: Elizabeth A. Kernohan and T.R. Thompson

A sterile inflammation was induced in one hindquarter in each of six mastitis-free lactating cows by the intra-mammary infusion of 50pg Escherichia coli endotoxin. The milk from such quarters was compared to that from paired control quarters for a period of six days following infusion. Yellow stain was produced by milk obtained at the first milking post-infusion from all quarters and persisted in some for eleven milkings. Yellow stain can thus occur in the absence of pathogenic organisms. Concurrently with yellow stain production large increases were observed in the concentration of B-carotene and somatic cell count. The trend seen in yellow stain score over the six days was very similar to that for the occurrence of foamy polymorphs. However no causal relationship could be established between any of the measured variables and yellow stain.

A 5 pg infusion of endotoxin into one udder half of each of two lactating goats caused an increase in Rapid Mastitis Test (RMT) score and somatic cell count but no production of yellow stain. No B-carotene was found in the samples of goats milk. This suggests that the presence of B-carotene is necessary for the formation of yellow stain.

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