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Scanning electronmicrographs were made of the upper surfaces of lintine sediment test discs through which various kinds of milk had passed. Normal milk and that with a high cell count which did not cause a yellow stain did not affect the porosity of the discs. Milk that produced a yellow stain caused the build-up of a matrix on the fibres, as did goats colostrum and milk from cows with clinical mastitis.
Homogenization and serial filtration of milk samples that produced a yellow stain destroyed their ability to form this matrix and to stain the disc yellow.
Defatting of this matrix with 2:1 (v/v) chloroform:methanol revealed another substance which was tentatively identified as fibrin. This substance was removed from the fibres of the discs by incubation with fibrinolysin.
It is suggested that leakage of plasma fibrinogen into milk and its polymerization to form a fibrin during periods of high vascular and epithelial permeability, leads to the formation of a matrix on milk sediment test discs. Lodgement of fat and associated B-carotene in this matrix causes the formation of yellow stain.
The fluorescent antibody technique has been used to demonstrate the presence of fibrin on fibres of sediment test discs through which milk producing a yellow stain had passed. In contrast, fibrin was not detected from fibres from unstained discs. Assessments were also made of the nature and the amount of sediment entrapped within discs prepared from normal milk and milk which produced a yellow stain. The results were consistent with the suggestion that fibrin forming on fibres of sediment test discs is the causative factor responsible for the appearance of yellow stain on such discs.
Apart from the effect of losses of fines in the casein manufacturing process, yield of casein per 100 lb. of whole milk received and lb. fat in this milk is affected (a) by breed and seasonal variations in the casein content and the casein/fat ratio of the milk, and (b) by the fat contents of the whole milk received and of the cream separated, which influence the proportion of plasma passing from the whole milk into the cream and therefore not available for casein manufacture.
Average theoretical yields of lactic casein are given for milks of different fat contents separated to skim milk and creams of different fat contents.
Authors: Wunwisa Krasaekoopt, Bhesh Bhandari, and Hilton Deeth
Continuous heat treatment by UHT processing has attractedinterest as an alternative to the batch-heating methodconventionally used in the production of yogurt. Severalstudies have been conducted on the manufacture of yogurtfrom milk heated by UHT processes and have compared itwith the conventional method. This paper reviews thecharacteristics of yogurt made from UHT milk, including itsapparent viscosity, gel strength, microstructure, syneresis(water-holding capacity) and flavour, as well as the behaviourof yogurt cultures in the UHT-treated pre-mix.
Authors: H. Foissy, G. Lindner, A. Krasz and H. Roginski
The continuing search for faster, better controlled manufacturing processes has, in recent decades, led to innovations in which the direct acidification of milk has been used instead of, or in addition to, milk fermentation for the manufacture of products that are traditionally made solely by fermentation. Using direct acidification alone, it is not possible to make a product that possesses the typical flavour, aroma and textural characteristics of yogurt. Also, manufacturing an acidic milk product that mimics yogurt's essential biochemical and microbiological features involves additional steps, rendering this alternative technology more complex than traditional fermentation and forgoing its economic advantages. Nevertheless, if such a product is offered - either plain or as a food component - a new category, with a distinct 'standard of identity' would have to be established for it in food legislation.
β-casein can be regarded as a precursor for different peptides with a biological activity, such as antihypertensive, opioid, or immunomodulating activities, which are released from the protein by digestion or enzymatic hydrolysis in a technological process. Meeting the demand for highly purified β-casein, a method for small pilot-scale isolation of β-casein from micellar casein powder was developed. The objective was to maximise both, yield and purity of β-casein by constructing a set of experiments at laboratory scale in which relevant factors pH-value, CaCl2-concentration, temperature, and β-casein solubilisation time were varied simultaneously. Increased pH-value, solubilisation time, the interaction of pH-value and temperature as well as a decreased reconstitution temperature caused a significant (p<0.05) higher yield, whereas β-casein purity increased with decreasing solubilisation time. Optimisation of both responses was achieved at pH 11, a CaCl2-concentration of 50 mmol/l, a reconstitution temperature of 30°C, and a solubilisation time of 2 hours. A purity of 95%, a 15% yield of β-casein, and a recovery of 33% of total β-casein, determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was achieved. Transferring the optimised extraction method from laboratory to small pilot-scale, a comparable yield (14%) and purity (90%) of the produced food-grade β-casein was obtained. The β-casein yield could be increased to 24% (53% recovery of total β-casein), accepting a purity of 77%.