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Authors: Sarah K. McLean, Louise A. Dunn and Enzo A. Palombo
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used in the identification of bacterial pathogens in dairy products, as well as in the genotyping of bacterial microbiota. Conventional PCR has been used in dairy microbiology to amplify specific genetic targets to identify pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and has been found to be a more sensitive and rapid technique compared to culture-based methods. Furthermore, PCR-based fingerprinting methods have been increasingly investigated as a more rapid tool than the current gold standard, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), for genotyping foodborne pathogens and microbiota. In this paper, two case studies are also described that illustrate how one such technique, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR has been used to determine the genetic diversity of E. coli isolated from contaminated dairy products.
This paper was presented to the 'Making the most of Membrane Technology' seminar held at University of Melbourne Gilbert Chandler College, Werribee, Victoria, Australia, on November 19-20, 1996. The seminar was sponsored by the Dairy Research and Development Corporation and the Co-operative Research Centre for International Food Manufacture and Packaging Science. This paper has not been peer reviewed.
In this study, an attempt was made to simulate the continuous manufacture of processed cheese and to monitor changes to its viscoelastic behaviour during cooking (shear and heat) and cooling prior to packaging.
Composite milk samples, obtained from commercial cows and Australian Hyfer ewes, were analysed for gross composition, fatty acid composition and fat globule size. Levels of protein and fat were significantly higher in the ewes' milk whereas lactose levels were similar to those in the cows' milk. The fatty acid compositions were similar with respect to monounsaturated fatty acids, but ewes' milk had higher levels of both Ãâ°3 polyunsaturated and short-chain saturated fatty acids (C8:0-C14:0) and lower levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids (C15:0-C24:0) than cows' milk. The composition of major constituents and fatty acids closely mirrored previous studies on sheep milk, but with minor differences in the relative contents of certain fatty acids. There was no significant difference between fat globule sizes of the ewes' and cows' milk.
This paper was first presented at the Milkfat Update Conference, 27-28 February 1996, at Werribee, Victoria, Australia, organised by the Australian Food Industry Science Centre and sponsored by the Dairy Research and Development Corporation. This paper has not been peer reviewed.
Authors: M. Papalois, F.W. Leach, S. Dungey, Y.L. Yep and C. Versteeg
An understanding of the seasonal and regional variation of the physical and chemical properties of milkfat is important to the dairy and food industries for optimal product manufacture and selection of milkfats for markets and applications. However, recent information on such variations over a period of time within and among Australian regions is not readily available to the Australian dairy industry and their customers. The national Australian milkfat survey was implemented to provide up to date comprehensive data on the composition and properties of milkfat. The survey involved the participation of 20 regional manufacturing sites across six states, over a two-year period. Analysis of the milkfat incluced Dropping Point and % Solid Fat Content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. Dropping points among states and seasons varied by up to 5°C and highlighted that there are very significant differences among states. The solid fat content was also highly variable among states and sites. The variations ranged from as much as 18% solid fat to as little as 6% solid fat at 5°C over the survey period. It is envisaged that these data will assist the Australian dairy industry to better understand, predict and manage the seasonal and regional variations of the milkfat properties and thereby enhance the functionality and marketability of milkfat-based products.
The definition of specialist cheese is imprecise, but for the purposes of this paper I will apply the interpretation favoured by the Australian Specialist Cheesemakers' Association (ASCA), which uses the type of cheesemaking process rather than the finished product or cheese style as the determining factor (ASCA 2007). Specialist cheese is generally handmade by artisan cheesemakers, and although they may use a scientific approach, the methods are similar to those used by artisans the world over. For example, the greatest volume by type of cheese manufactured in Australia is cheddar (Dairy Australia 2006), and cheese is mostly made in highly mechanised plants by technicians at computer controls. However, cheddar is also made by hand at Maffra, Pyengana, Woodside and Ashgrove, and these handmade cheddars are considered specialist. I will give a little background to the development of the specialist cheesemaking sector, some indications of the achievements made, and point to opportunities and threats faced in the future.
Dairy farmers in Western Australia who had installed automatic cluster removers were surveyed to determine whether savings in labour were being achieved. Information was also obtained of any other advantages and problems. On 13 or 22 farms labour was saved and cow throughputs per man were increased when the number of operators at milking was reduced following the installation of cluster removers. There was only a small reduction in milking time on the 9 farms out of 22 when there was no reduction in labour. The task of milking was made easier and farmers considered this to be just as important as savings in labour. There was no changes in herd somatic cell counts that could be attributed to the automatic cluster removers.
The softening point of milk fat and its fractions is normally determined by the Barnicoat method. An alternative procedure using the Mettler FP5 and FP53 automatic dropping point apparatus was studied. The heating rate was found to be the most important of several variables affecting the dropping point. Two methods are proposed. One, with overnight chilling of the sample and heating at 1°C/min, is regarded as the standard as it gives results equal to the Barnicoat softening point. The other, a quick method with 15 minutes’ chilling of the sample and heating at 2°C/min, gives a dropping point result within half an hour, although this result is about 1.3°C higher than the Barnicoat softening point. Dropping points were also determined for the finished products, butter and margarine, and the results were compared with the dropping points of the fats separated from the products.
Authors: S. BakalorA formol titration technique giving improved precision and rapidity was developed. This makes use of an Auto-burette linked with a pH Titrator, and a top-pan balance with taring device (accuracy ± 0.2 g) for weighing the (20 g) samples of herd using 20 ml, was equivalent to 0.01 per cent protein. The S.D. of differences with the Kjeldahl method was 0.038 per cent protein. Oxalate, used in the final method, increased the formol titre and apparently, the accuracy, but not the reproducibility or precision.
A formol titration technique giving improved precision and rapidity was developed. This makes use of an Auto-burette linked with a pH Titrator, and a top-pan balance with taring device (accuracy ± 0.2 g) for weighing the (20 g) samples of herd using 20 ml, was equivalent to 0.01 per cent protein. The S.D. of differences with the Kjeldahl method was 0.038 per cent protein. Oxalate, used in the final method, increased the formol titre and apparently, the accuracy, but not the reproducibility or precision.
As the first step toward automation in the first phase of Cheddar cheese manufacture (addition of starter to wheying off), a survey was carried out in a commercial cheese factory to find out the optimal range of the temperature and pH changes obtaining for the production of good quality cheese. Data from the survey were then used in deriving an automatic temperature and pH control programme which was instrumented and successfully tested in commercial manufacture of Cheddar cheese. An expanded programme, covering instrumentation for all operations from the cutting of the curd to the transfer of the vat contents to the cheddaring machine has been adopted for commercial cheese factory installations.
Authors: M.L. Hutchinson-Jones, T. Treloar and P.F. Nixon
Milk contains folate-binding protein (FBP), which can be purified from whey protein concentrate (WPC). FBP binds folate vitamins with high affinity and has been shown to greatly stabilise otherwise very labile folates (Hutchinson et al. 2000). Binding of FBP to folate is affected by the physical state of the FBP (Jones et al. 2000). The effect of FBP on the bioavailability of folate is under investigation. This paper shows that this function is dependent on the environment of the FBP.