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Bioactivities of peptides encrypted in major milk proteins are latent until released and activated by enzymatic proteolysis, e.g. during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing. Activated peptides are potential modulators of various regulatory processes in the living system: Opioid peptides are opioid receptor ligands which can modulate absorption processes in the intestinal tract, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides exert an hypotensive effect, immunomodulatory casein peptides stimulate the activities of cells of the immune system, antimicrobial peptides kill sensitive micro-organisms, antithrombotic peptides inhibit aggregation of platelets, mineral binding peptides may function as carriers for different minerals, especially calcium, and several cytomodulatory peptides inhibit cancer cell growth. The multifunctionality of various peptides involves quite different bioactivities. Bioactive peptides can interact with target sites at the luminal side of the intestinal tract, or they could reach any potential site of action in the system to elicit physiological effects. Food-derived bioactive peptides are claimed to be health enhancing components for 'functional foods' that are used to reduce the risk of disease or to enhance a certain physiological function.
Milk proteins are known to exert a wide range of nutritional,functional and biological activities that make them potentialingredients of health-promoting foods. These properties arepartially attributed to physiologically active peptides encryptedin the protein molecules. Such peptides are inactive within thesequence of the parent protein molecule and can be liberatedduring gastrointestinal digestion or milk fermentation byproteolytic enzymes. Milk protein-derived bioactive peptidesmay exert a number of physiological effects in vivo, e.g. on thegastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune andnervous systems. For the time being, industrial-scale manufactureof such peptides is limited by the lack of suitable technologies.Bioactive peptides have been identified in varioustraditional fermented dairy products but the potential health affectingrole of these peptides is not known. On the otherhand, dairy products enriched with milk protein-derivedbioactive peptides have been commercialised and this trend islikely to continue. There is a need to develop technologies thatoptimise the activity of bioactive peptides in food systems andenable optimum utilisation of such peptides in the body. Thisreview highlights the current technologies applicable forproduction of bioactive peptides, their occurrence in dairyfoods and potential for health
The membrane surrounding the lipid droplets in milk is generally referred to as the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). We have for some time been studying the structure and function of dominant proteins associated with this membrane system. This short presentation aims to give a glimpse of the bioactivities described for a range of major MFGM-proteins: MUC 1, MUC 15, xanthine oxidoreductase, butyrophilin, lactadherin, and PP3. Butyrophilin and PP3, are exclusively expressed in the mammary gland, whereas the other proteins are connected to physiological functions in a variety of tissues. Presently, focus is on activities taking place in the mammary gland, in milk, and upon ingestion. In perspective, it will of course be interesting to see if there are new applications for isolated milk MFGM-derivatives, e.g. to fortification of infant formulas and/or dietetic food.
Authors: Elsa L. Nhuch, Bernardo Prieto, Inmaculada Franco, Ana Bernardo and Javier Carballo
San Simón da Costa cheese is a traditional smoked variety produced in the north-west of Spain from cow's milk and protected by a Designation of Origin. The gross and mineral composition, the main physico-chemical parameters, proteolysis (classical nitrogen fractions and free amino acids) and lipolysis (fat acidity and free fatty acids) were determined during 60 days' ripening of six batches of this cheese made from pasteurised milk using a lactic starter culture. Despite milk pasteurisation, cheeses presented a considerable variation in composition between manufacturers, probably due to variations in the manufacturing parameters. The gross and mineral composition and the physico-chemical parameters did not differ much from those observed in other similar cow's milk cheeses; however its high contents in calcium and phosphorus and its low contents in chloride and sodium are outstanding. From the values of the different nitrogen fractions it can be concluded that this cheese undergoes only moderate proteolysis. The most abundant free amino acid at the end of the ripening was glutamic acid, followed by tryptophan, leucine, asparagine and glutamine; these five amino acids accounted for 60% of the total free amino acids. San Simón da Costa cheese made from pasteurised milk undergoes little lipolysis during ripening, as indicated by the fat acidity and total free fatty acid values; the most abundant free fatty acid was oleic, followed by palmitic and butyric acid.
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein of the transferrin family, mainly found in milk of various mammals and in other exocrine secretions, such as tears, saliva, synovial fluid and the secondary granules of neutrophils and blood. The concentration of LF in the mammary gland is affected by factors such as lactation and health condition. Its structure has been studied in detail and is reviewed in this paper. LF has demonstrated bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against various bacteria in vitro and/or in vivo. Two basic biochemical properties appear to contribute to its antimicrobial activity: its extremely powerful iron-binding capacity and its strong interaction with other molecules and the cell surface. Other possible mechanisms of LF antimicrobial action have been suggested and are reviewed. Several antimicrobial peptides derived from LF have been discovered, showing strong activity against Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria. LF has a demonstrated inhibitory effect on a number of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, for which mechanisms have been proposed. First, LF may interact with the cell glycosaminoglycans, which are the binding sites for many viruses. Second, LF may bind directly to viral particles and inhibit viral replication. In addition, LF possesses other biological properties, including fungistatic, parasiticidal, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer and anti-oxidant activities. This paper summarises some current applications of LF in dental care products, antimicrobial agents, health promoting supplements and nutritional ingredients.
Authors: M. Coakley, E. McGrath, R.P. Ross, G. Fitzgerald, R. Devery and C. Stanton
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural component of milkfat due to microbial biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in the rumen. Feeding CLA positively affects the control of inflammatory disease, cancer, obesity and arteriosclerosis (for reviews see Pariza et al. 2001 and Belury 2002). As well as rumen-derived bacteria, other cultures can synthesise CLA from linoleic acid. Among these are bifidobacteria of human origin (Coakley et al. 2003). Bifidobacteria have specific health benefits including improvement of gastrointestinal disturbances, enhancement of immune function and cancer suppression. The generation of CLA by strains of bifidobacteria may explain some of their probiotic benefits. This study investigated the bioconversion of linoleic acid and CLA three isomers by a selection of bifidobacteria and assessed the anti-proliferative action of two of the isomers.
A mechanism is postulated to explain early and transient bitter flavour in cheese. It is based on the higher proteolytic activity of the rennet enzymes at lower pH, resulting in an accumulation of polypeptides, including the bitter-tasting peptones, and on the inability at he lower pH levels of the bacterial proteinases to break down the polypeptides to the amino-acid stage. Lower content of bacterial proteinases would also explain the greater incidence of bitter flavour of this type in cheese made from pasteurised milk.
Three bitter peptides have been isolated from a tryptic digest of casein coprecipitate. No other bitter peptides were detected. All originated from as1 casein and comprised residues 23-24, 91-100 and 145-151 of that protein. The second peptide was the most bitter, and has not previously been reported as a bitter peptide.
Authors: Z. Shen, A. Birkett, M.A. Augustin, S. Dungey and C. Versteeg
The blending of milkfat with vegetable oils gives a desirable buttery flavour to the blends and is accompanied by changes in the physical properties in comparison with the original fats. As these properties, particularly the melting behaviour of fat ingredients, determine their suitability in food applications, it is essential for processors to be aware of alterations in the physical properties of the blends. Previous work on milkfat-vegetable oil blends has shown that blends of milkfat with palm oil gave shortenings with softer consistency (Aini et al. 1994). Strong eutectic interactions were observed on mixing milkfat with cocoa butter (Timms 1980), which affects chocolate softening. A survey of the producers of milkfat in Australia indicated an interest in hydrogenated coconut oil-milkfat blends. This work investigated the melting behaviour of blends of milkfat with hydrogenated coconut oils.
Mastitis is one of the most important diseases affecting dairy cattle in Australia. The disease is widely distributed and has a very high incidence in most herds resulting in a great economic loss through a lowering of milk yield and the adverse effect on the products made from milk of infected cattle. It is natural therefore that the legislature should have framed laws and laid down regulations to deal with the diagnosis of this disease and to have placed restrictions on the use of milk from animals infected with micro-organisms likely to cause mastitis.
The problems confronting us here are:
(a) What are the legal standards for pure milk from healthy cows.
(b) How should diseased cows be detected and how are those methods carried out to arrive at some method or methods which may be said to give conclusive evidence of infection even if at the moment we cannot hope to get the additional information of infection likely to become clinically apparent.
The answer to these two questions should prove of value in possible suggestions for submission to the appropriate authorities for the improvement of the control of mastitis. With this object in view, a questionnaire was prepared for circulation amongst the Agricultural Departments of the States of the Commonwealth as well as various co-operative enterprises and other interested bodies. It embraced the various aspects of the two problems and was designed to obtain as complete a picture of the current practices as possible. The following article has been set out so that each paragraph corresponds to a question or set of questions as it occurs in original questionnaire.
Some of the factors causing browning reaction in processed cheese were studied. It was found that the high pH and the use of milk powder are the two most important catalysts of the browning reaction. Storage temperature higher than 35°C for more than 4-6 weeks is critical in colour formation.
A selection of the processed cheeses on the market nearly all developed colour and undesirable flavour after 6-12 weeks of storage at 40°C or 45°C.
The use of calcium co-precipitate in processed cheese was very successful in controlling the browning reaction after storage for 6 and 12 weeks at 40 and 45°C.