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Authors: B.D. Dixon, R.H. Cracknell and N. Tomlinson
Several methods for the incorporation of vegetable oil into cream or butter for the manufacture of a spreadable blend product are described and compared. They are (1) addition of the oil to the milk prior to separation, (2) addition to the raw cream, (3) addition to the pasteurised cream just prior to churning, (4) addition to the butter at the working stage and (5) addition to stored butter during reworking. There was a tendency for products to be more spreadable as the oil was added in later stages of the process. For the latter two procedures, adequate mixing was essential. There appeared to be no pronounced effect on quality of the blend product attributable to the point of addition, subject to there being adequate mixing.
Authors: R.J. Holdaway, C.W. Holmes and I.J. Steffert
Eight parameters - somatic cell count, electrical conductivity, pH, N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, lactose and α1-antitrypsin - were measured in milk samples from individual quarters, in two experiments. Experiment 1: The eight parameters were measured in strict foremilk, foremilk, midmilk and strippings from 20 individual quarters, nine of which were free of bacterial infection. The somatic cell count, pH, NAGase activity and sodium concentration increased during the milking process; the opposite was true of the concentrations of lactose and potassium, for both infected and uninfected quarters. The differences in the concentrations of a given parameter between infected and uninfected udder quarters were generally greater in strippings than in foremilk fractions, although the interaction term was not significant for six of the parameters. Experiment 2: The eight parameters were measured in quarter foremilk samples taken from 121 cows in three herds, at monthly intervals. Between 10% and 19% of quarters showed growth by a pathogen during the period. Bacterial infection of the udder caused statistically significant increases in the somatic cell count, NAGase activity, electrical conductivity and the concentrations of sodium and α1-antitrypsin, and a statistically significant decrease in the concentration of lactose; effects on the potassium concentration and on the pH of the milk were quantitatively smaller and differed between herds. The stage of lactation exerted significant effects on all of the parameters; somatic cell count, sodium concentration, electrical conductivity, pH, NAGase activity and α1-antitrypsin concentration, increased during mid to late lactation, while the concentrations of potassium and lactose tended to decrease. Milk from older cows exhibited increased levels of NAGase activity, electrical conductivity and sodium ions, while the concentrations of lactose and of potassium were lower for older animals. The effects of the age of the cow on the somatic cell count and on the α1-antitrypsin concentration varied between herds.
Authors: R.J. Holdaway, C.W. Holmes and I.J. Steffert
The ability of eight parameters to discriminate between infected and uninfected udder quarters, or cows, was assessed, using samples taken at monthly intervals from 121 cows within three herds. The somatic cell count correctly classified 80% of quarters and 75% of cows, while over 70% of quarters, and 67% of cows, were correctly classified by the sodium concentration and by the N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity of the milk The remaining parameters each classified correctly fewer than 70% of quarters, and 60% of cows, as being infected or uninfected. The critical threshold value for each parameter varied between herds, with the greatest between-herd variation shown by somatic cell count, ranging from 85,000 to 375,000 cells/mL for quarters and between 73,000 and 344,000 for cows. Critical threshold values increased during lactation for somatic cell count and sodium concentration, but tended to decrease for NAGase activity. For identification of cows, the specificity of the somatic cell count was slightly lower than that of the NAGase activity or the sodium concentration, but the sensitivity of the somatic cell count was markedly higher than that of any other parameter. The discriminative ability of the somatic cell count showed little variation between herds or during lactation provided that the relevant critical threshold figure was used.
Authors: R.J. Holdaway, C.W. Holmes and I.J. Steffert
Bacterial status and somatic cell count were measured for 30 cows in each of 15 herds, and data for the three herds described in a previous paper were also included. The relationships between prevalence of infection, estimated bulk milk somatic cell count (EBMSCC) and the critical threshold for the somatic cell count were examined. Log10 EBMSCC was closely correlated to the percentage of quarters infected by major pathogens (r2 = 0.71) and by major and minor pathogens (r2 = 0.85). The corresponding correlations with percentage of cows infected were lower (r2 < 0.56). The critical threshold for the somatic cell count was correlated to the percentage of quarters infected by minor pathogens and by streptococci (r2 = 0.52), but correlation with other measures of infection prevalence were lower. However, when one herd with a high incidence of Steptococcus agalactiae was excluded, the critical threshold value was closely correlated with EBMSCC (r2 - 0.76) and the critical threshold could be predicted reliably by a model which included EBMSCC, cow age and stage of lactation (r2 - 0.84). Use of the herd's critical threshold value resulted in a large decrease (x 0.5) in the number of false positive diagnoses, compared with the use of 250,000 cells/mL as a set value for the threshold. The data suggest that for the majority of herds, critical threshold for SCC can be predicted reliably from the herds EBMSCC. It can then be used to estimate the economic threshold value which is best-suited for each particular application within the mastitis control program.
Authors: J.C. Radcliffe, M.L. Horne and C.A. Chillingworth
A milking herd at the Northfield Research Centre was maintained for three months in two similar groups. One group was milked using manual teat cup removal while the other group was milked using an automatic teat cup removal mechanism activated by a flow rate sensing device. The cows were milked in a four stand double-up “walk through” type dairy. Automatic teat cup removal resulted in a significant (P<0.01) reduction of 4% in total milk production, with consequent significant reductions in protein and s.n.f. yields. A significant (P <0.01) increase in s.n.f. percentage was recorded.
The use of automatic cup removers reduced the milking time by eliminating overmilking. Commerical milking machine cleaning techniques were suitable for use with the flow rate sensing devices.
It is concluded that the use of automatic cup removal devices is practicable, but further investigations are required to evaluate their use in dairies of differing designs.
Authors: B.C. Cooke, S.M. Edwards, T.W. Gleeson and A.E. Thomson
Three commercial miniaturized bacterial systems were compared to conventional methods (Edwards and Ewin) for the confirmation of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy products. Enterotube compared acceptably and significantly better than Microbact (p<0.01) and Minitek (p<0.02). No significant differences could be found between Microbact and Minitek.
The use of reconstitution as an acceptable alternative to recombination for the preparation of liquid milk, sweetened condensed and evaporated milk has been investigated. Adjustment of manufacturing procedures during the preparation of full-cream powders in association with changes in product processing resulted in the preparation of reconstituted products with acceptable physical characteristics. The initial flavour and shelf life of reconstituted products was limited by the stability of full-cream powders during storage. Changes in some physical properties of powders and products during storage are also reported.
Authors: B.C. Cooke, S.M. Edwards, T.W. Gleeson and A. Thomson
One hundred and fifty eight presumptive Escherichia coli, isolated during routine surveillance of dairy products, were confirmed by two systems, IMViCE and conventional methods, to assess the extent of atypical E. coli biotypes. Eijkman-negative E. coli were found to constitute the major proportion of atypical biotypes (18% of total confirmed). It is proposed that the Eijkman procedure be no longer used as a screening technique. The procedure should be weighted equally with the remaining four IMViCE tests.
The milking characteristics of ten types of teatcup liner (8 commercial and 2 experimental types) in new condition were compared for strip yield, machine time, and incidence of slipping and falling. Significant differences were found in all milking characteristics using a group of 20 cows in a 10 x 10 Latin square over a 20 day period. Strip yield ranged from 0.26 to 0.62 kg, between 3 and 7.5% of the total yield. The slowest liner took 22% longer than the fastest to milk cows out. The most stable liner slipped or fell at a rate of 4 per hundred cow milkings, compared with 59 per hundred for the least stable.
Eight of the liners were selected to form three pairs differing mainly in single physical characteristics (presence or absence of knobs on the inner surface of the liner barrel, presence of absence of mouthpiece petals and presence or absence of a plastic strip within the barrel of the liner). An experimental knobbed liner took significantly longer to milk out and fell more often than its plain counterpart. Insertion of a plastic strip caused another liner to fall more often. Mouthpiece petals caused a reduction in slips and falls, but increased machine time.
Five of the ten types of liners were aged in commercial use (approximately 1800 cow milkings in 5 months use) and their subsequent milking characteristics then compared with their new counter parts on the same group of 20 cows for 20 days in late lactation in a 10 x 10 Latin square. The group of aged liners slipped or fell less often than the same group of liners in new condition. Other characteristics were not significantly different between the new and aged liners.
Biscuits enriched with dairy products have been developed as a means of providing calorie and protein supplements. This original article compares an Australian biscuit and a New Zealand biscuit in a pilot field trial for differing amounts of lactose.
Authors: W. I. Scott. W. G. Whittlestone and P. Lutz
The original Ruakura alternating acid and alkali cleaning system has been compared with a system using the same type of alkali seven days a week and including a pre-milking rinse with a phosphoric acid iodophor. The latter system was shown to be more effective in the prevention of the build-up of milkstone both on completely and partley tinned copper surfaces. The rate of corrosion was not significantly greater with the iodophor-alkali system than with the Ruakura system. The rate of corrosion of tine and the rate at which milkstone deposits build up on it are both sharply increased when the tin surface is electrically coupled to a bare copper surface.
Dairy replacement calves were successfully reared from four days of age using milk and one commercial milk replacer. Despite its commercial promotion, a second milk-powder-based calf food proved fatal when used under similar field conditions. When the introduction of this product was delayed until the calves had been reared on whole milk for one month, the calves were reared successfully. Calves were weaned at three months of age to annual pastures, hay and silage, but significantly lower body weights were recorded for both types of milk powder fed calves at six months of age. Regressions calculated of girth measurements on body weights showed girth measurements to be an unreliable means of estimating body weight.
Authors: H.C. Deeth, C.H. Fitz-Gerald and A.F Wood
A simple, reliable method for the measurement of free fatty acids in milk is described. The acids are extracted from 2-5ml of milk with an isopropanol-petroleum ether-4N H2SO4 solvent and titrated with methanolic KOH.
The method involves no heating, centrifugin or weighing and can be used for large numbers of samples. It is proposed as an alternative to the existing methods.