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Articles

A Critical Examination of the "Spoilage Bacteria Test" for Post-Pasterisation Contamination of Milk

A Critical Examination of the "Spoilage Bacteria Test" for Post-Pasterisation Contamination of Milk

Authors: P.G. Meiklejohn

Samples of raw milk frequently contain comparatively large populations of thermoduric bacteria able to grow on penicillin-TTC agar. These bacteria are largely micrococci, and cannot be classified as spoilage bacteria.

The count of penicillin-resistant organisms (P.RO.) of the test sample will be of value as an index of plant hygiene only when the thermoduric P.R.O. count of the original raw milk is known for comparison.

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A de-emulsification technique for use in the peroxide test on the fat of milk, cream concentrated and dried milks

A de-emulsification technique for use in the peroxide test on the fat of milk, cream concentrated and dried milks

Authors: E. G. Pont

A de-emulsification technique has been developed for obtaining fat from milk cream, concentrated and dried milks for fat-peroxide values by the ferric thiocyanate method can be obtained from samples as small as 30 ml of milk and 3 ml of cream. A solution of sodium citrate, sodium salicylate and n-butanol is used, and the fat I separated in a Babcock cream flask.

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A dynamic model for melting and browning of mozzarella cheese during pizza baking

A dynamic model for melting and browning of mozzarella cheese during pizza baking

Authors: M.A. Rudan and D.M. Barbano

Our objective was to determine the effect of free oil release on fat-free, low-fat and full-fat mozzarella cheese functionality during baking. The effect of a physical barrier on fat-free, low-fat and full-fat mozzarella cheese functionality was also determined. Based on these results a dynamic mozzarella cheese melting and browning model is proposed.

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A Farm Survey of Milking Machine Performance, Milking Management and California Mastitis Test Results

A Farm Survey of Milking Machine Performance, Milking Management and California Mastitis Test Results

Authors: R. Fell and R.J. Richards

Milking machine performance and milking technique were measured on thirteen similar farms employing a standard hygiene procedure. A multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between these measurements and the average results of three California Mastitis Tests (CMT) on individual quarter milk samples. Overmilking time and milk flow time per cow and also poor vacuum regulator performance were positively correlated with CMT score, but overmilking time made a relatively small contribution to the multiple regression. Mean milking vacuum level was negatively correlated while two types of vacuum fluctuation measured with a low-speed recorder were unrelated to CMT score. Results were inconclusive for reserve air and pulsator balance. This set of environmental factors made a highly significant contribution (p<0.01) to the variation in CMT scores. The significance of these results to the aetiology of mastitis is discussed with particular reference to the hypothesis that milking machine characteristics which reduce the rate of milking may be those which contribute to udder irritation or mastitis.

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A flavour defect in cheese made from apparently normal curd

A flavour defect in cheese made from apparently normal curd

Authors: Ailsa F. Gillies, T.W. Domett, Anita M. Larcher and Claire I. Curtis

Surveys were carried out at Queensland cheese factories to determine the causes of a fermented flavour in cheese. No evidence was obtained of delayed acid production late in manufacture. The flavour appeared in cheese made from curd initially of good quality. There was no correlation between pH of the cheese and the flavour defect. There was however a relation between the appearance of the ferment and the early die-out of the starter organisms, and at one factory there was a correlation between the defect and the use of certain starters.

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A Four-Day Count for Psychrotrophs

A Four-Day Count for Psychrotrophs

Authors: B.H.S. Juffs

Two methods are described by which a count of psychrotrophic organisms may be obtained in four days. Both methods involve preliminary incubation at 15°C for 1 day; one method follows this by three days incubation at 7°C and the other by 3 days at 5°. Counts obtained by both methods were compared with counts obtained by the standard method for counting psychrotrophs, i.e. 10 days incubation at 7°C. Counts obtained by the three methods were not significantly different at the 0.05 probability significance level.

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A Further Examination of the Penicillin-Agar Test for Post-Pasteurization Contamination of Milk

A Further Examination of the Penicillin-Agar Test for Post-Pasteurization Contamination of Milk

Authors: Patricia C. Loane

The incidence of thermoduric, penicillin-resistant organisms (TPRO) was determined in (a) bottle pasteurized milks, (b) factory and farm bulk raw milk tankers and (c) the supplies of individual farms - both from cans and bulk vats. The source of these organisms was investigated. Their significance with respect to (i) the interpretation of the Penicillin-Agar Test for post-pasteurization contamination of milk and (ii) milk quality evaluation is discussed. Characteristics of these organisms were also examined and their susceptibility to heat and chemical sanitizers assessed.

Overall results indicate that provided comparison is made of penicillin agar counts before and after laboratory pasteurization of the test sample, the Penicillin-Agar Test is a valuable quantitative assessment of the extent of post-pasteurization contamination and effectiveness of plant hygiene.

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A generic approach to water minimisation and reuse in industry - implications in dairy operations

A generic approach to water minimisation and reuse in industry - implications in dairy operations

Authors: Martin Andersen and Gert Holm Kristensen

Within the Danish Centre for Industrial Water Management (CEVI) a generic method concept for identification, evaluation and implementation of water reuse and resource recovery scenarios has been developed. To assist the different phases of the concept, a number of generic tools have been developed and evaluated. The tools cover spreadsheets for systematic data collection, Water- Pinch analysis, process simulation, and tools and checklists for technical, economic, environmental and robustness evaluation of scenarios. This includes a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach to ensure that assessment of risks of microbial contamination of products and production environment is included in the design of water reuse systems.

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A generic approach to water minimisation and reuse in industry - implications in dairy operations

A generic approach to water minimisation and reuse in industry - implications in dairy operations

Authors: Martin Andersen and Gert Holm Kristensen

Within the Danish Centre for Industrial Water Management (CEVI) a generic method concept for identification, evaluation and implementation of water reuse and resource recovery scenarios has been developed. To assist the different phases of the concept, a number of generic tools have been developed and evaluated. The tools cover spreadsheets for systematic data collection, Water- Pinch analysis, process simulation, and tools and checklists for technical, economic, environmental and robustness evaluation of scenarios. This includes a hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) approach to ensure that assessment of risks of microbial contamination of products and production environment is included in the design of water reuse systems.

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A Herd Production Record Scheme

A Herd Production Record Scheme

Authors: P. D. Scarr

The paper discusses the efforts by the Hunter Valley Co-Operative Dairy Company, NSW, to provide its dairy suppliers with information on their individual herd production figures by means of a herd production record scheme.

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A high performance liquid chromatography method for lactose determination in milk

A high performance liquid chromatography method for lactose determination in milk

Authors: Janet Harvey

A short technical article describing high performance liquid chromatography method for lactose determination in milk.

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A Laboratory High Temperature Short-Time Pasteuriser

A Laboratory High Temperature Short-Time Pasteuriser

Authors: J. V. Pascoe

The paper describes the design, construction and use of a high-temperature-short-time pasteurising equipment.

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A method for assessing the cleaning efficiency of detergents

A method for assessing the cleaning efficiency of detergents

Authors: M. Mead and J. V. Pascoe

A method of assessing the effectiveness of cleansers has been developed. Glass microscope slides are soiled with whole-milk film and then treated with various cleaning solutions. When standardised methods of soiling and cleansing are used it is possible to evaluate the absolute and relative efficiency of detergents, singly or in combination, by measuring light transmission through slides before and after the soiling and cleansing process. The method employs apparatus common to most laboratories.

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A method for determining the moisture distribution in butter and a review of its applications

A method for determining the moisture distribution in butter and a review of its applications

Authors: L. L. Muller

A method for assessing moisture distribution in butter is described. Four smears 30 microns thick are examined microscopically and droplets over 30 microns diameter are counted in 20 fields in each smear. The accuracy of the method is shown to be sufficient for its purpose. Possible applications of the method are illustrated by a limited number of observations: (1) Grading comments on texture defects are compared with droplet counts. (2) Bacterial multiplication was found to be greatest with least worked butters. Reasons for lack of closer proportion are suggested. (3) Keeping quality both at 45-50°F and in cold storage improved with finer moisture distribution. Factors responsible are discussed.

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A Method for Estimating the Approximate Content of Whey Protein in Co-Precipitate

A Method for Estimating the Approximate Content of Whey Protein in Co-Precipitate

Authors: R.D. Hill and Joan Leary

An original article discussing a method for estimating the approximate content of whey protein in co-precipitate.

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