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In the dairy factory control laboratory it is sometimes necessary to determine a moisture content rapidly as a check on plant operation. Several methods have been used for this purpose, but a recent development the Franklin Infra Red Moisture Tester appears to have advantages in rapidity and simplicity of operation. In this paper the results of some tests of this apparatus under practical conditions are presented.
A method was developed for the rapid determination of the content of lactic acid in skim milk powder. Interfering substances were removed from reconstituted milk by treatment with calcium hydroxide and copper sulphate, followed by centrifugation. Concentrated sulphuric acid was used to oxidise the lactic acid in an aliquot of the supernatant to acetaldehyde, which was estimated by means of its colour reaction with p-hydroxy diphenyl. The method was suitable for the determination of lactic acid contents in the range 20-120 mg/100g powder, and should extend to a lower limit of 10 mg /100 g.
Hydrogen peroxide was added to milk samples to give a concentration of 0.04%. The samples were then incubated at 32°C for 5 hours, and subjected to the residual hydrogen peroxide test by the addition of 40% potassium iodide. Lack of development of colour indicated a reduction in hydrogen peroxide concentration and hence an appreciable degree of catalase activity. The milk samples were also organoleptically graded.
Statistical analysis of the results indicated that there was a positive correlation between the test and the arbitrary standards for a satisfactory milk, and also between the test and the organoleptic grading.
The paper reports the use of formic acid, both to liberate the free fatty acids from the salts obtained after distillation of the acids from cheese into alkali, and as a solvent for the quantitative GC determination of C2 to C8 free fatty acids on Chromosorb 101 with nitromethane or heptanoic adic as the internal standard.
Evidence from animal and cell culture studies suggests that milk proteins, especially those associated with whey, have anti-carcinogenic properties. These properties appear to be related to components rich in the sulphur amino acids cysteine and methionine and containing the γ-glutamylcysteine residue which makes cysteine readily bioavailable for synthesis of glutathione, a strong xenobiotic deactivating and anti-neoplastic agent. Methionine, which can also be utilised for glutathione synthesis in times of cysteine deficiency, is also important as a methyl donor. Hypomethylation of DNA is an important risk factor for cancer at a number of sites. The provision of glutathione precursors by whey proteins may, at least in part, explain the ability of dietary whey protein to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals. The whey protein fraction contains a number of high-affinity binding proteins that bind iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, riboflavin, retinol and vitamin D. Binding of iron by lactoferrin may make this potential pro-carcinogen unavailable for intestinal damage, whereas the vitamin Bbinding proteins make their vitamins (potential anti-cancer agents) more bioavailable and protect them from utilisation by intestinal micro-organisms. Whey also contains growth factors (transforming growth factor-β and basic fibroblast growth factor) and an inhibitor (mammary-derived growth inhibitor) with anti-cancer action at extremely low concentrations. These compounds may survive digestion in sufficient quantities to generate a physiological response. The anticancer properties of the membrane phospholipid sphingomyelin, a strong tumour suppressor lipid, associated with whey protein concentrate and skim milk powder, and the calcium content of the products, should be taken into consideration when assessing the role of milk proteins in cancer prevention.
A rotary viscometer has been developed for the rapid determination of viscosity of a milk-detergent mixture used in the estimation of leucocyte count. The apparatus allows one operator to test up to two hundred samples per hour.
A modified butyl alcohol test is described which is capable of yielding results in low-testing skim within 0.01 per cent of the true figure. The effect of acid strength and temperature, speed of centrifuge, time of water addition and temperature of centrifuge were examined and certain recommendations made.
A simplified tester for the detection of coliform organisms in butter and other products have been developed. The plastic device serves as sterile sampler and dilution bottle. A "bacto-strip" immersed in the dilution is incubated for 8-14 hours, so that results are obtaines rapidly. The plastic device may be used 30-50 times.
A method for the estimation of free amino acids in Cheddar cheese, combining extraction with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) / sulphuric acid and determination with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid, was investigated. Although it was found that the dibasic amino acids and proline were not measured and that some peptide material was being measured, the PTA-soluble amino nitrogen level exhibited a linear relationship with total amino acids extracted from the cheese. This could be partly explained by the fact that, while free amino acid levels increased with the age of the cheese, the relative proportion of each amino acid remained essentially constant. The method, therefore, offers a simple inexpensive means of estimating total free amino acids in Cheddar cheese.
There have been many simple laboratory tests developed for the detection of penicillin residues in milk. Most of these tests are based on either acid production or dye reduction (1, 2). For dihydrostreptomycin, another antibiotic frequently used in intramammary preparations, there are no similar tests available. Such tests (3, 4, 5, 6) as have been reported suffer from one of more disadvantages; they are complicated, or require special apparatus, take too long to do, or are insufficiently sensitive.
The test reported here is simple and capable of detecting 0.03 to 0.04 μg/ml of dihydeostreptomycin in milk. However unlike penicillin testing where positive results can be check-tested using penicillinase, the test is only presumptive for dihydeostreptomycin. Where a positive result obtained it is advisable to check test for penicillin (1, 2) as C11, the test organism is sensitive to 0.25 I.U.penicillin/ml (7).