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Authors: J.T. Feagan, A.F. Hehir, M.A. Liebelt and B.R. White
The "Trutest" and "Waikato" milk meters were examined during 11 months use under practical herd recording conditions. Variations in accuracy were observed within and between types of meters. The "Trutest" was preferred by the farmers. The practicability of centralized testing of the milk for butterfat, solids-not-fat and protein was also examined and the costs of the various systems are discussed.
Non starter lactobacilli were added in high numbers (>106 cfu g-1) to cheddar cheese at the vat stage of manufacture of manufacture. The lactobacilli did not affect the rates of growth and acid production of the starter organisms and other cheesemaking parameters. They remained at high levels throughout maturation, dominating the non starter microflora of the cheese to the exclusion of naturally occurring organisms. While the lactobacilli did not metabolise citrate or lead to the formation of biogenic amines, protein catabolism rates, particularly with respect to peptide degradation, were increased as was flavour development and intensity. It was observed that the body and texture of the cheese was unaffected by the treatment.
A non starter lactobacillus was added, in the vat stage of manufacture, to cheddar cheese manufactured with a proteinase negative starter. The lactobacillus did not affect manufacturing procedures but protein degradation rates were increased and flavour development and intensity improved. However proteinase activities were not improved to the levels exhibited in the control cheese, even though peptidase activity and the levels of amino acids were similar. In addition there was no bitter flavour development, citrate was not metabolised and biogenic amines did not form. The results also indicate that starter bacteria many play a more important role in the degradation of proteins in cheese that previously thought.
A method has been developed for accelerating the ripening rate of Cheddar cheese, with consequent savings in storage costs. Cheese was manufactured by normal techniques up until salting, at which time Cheddar cheese slurries, ripened for about one week at 30°C, were added to the curd. The bacterial flora, amount of proteolytic breakdown, and grading results of the resultant cheeses were compared with controls. Provided potassium sorbate was included in the slurries, the only marked change in the bacterial flora of the cheese was an increase in the numbers of lactobacilli present. No increase in TCA-soluble nitrogen was detected in the cheeses to which slurries were added, but a significant advancement in flavour and body development occurred.
The cooling section of a Tandem Vacreator may be used for the continuous concentration of buttermilk and skim milk. Computed curves and tables presented showing the water evaporation possible for various operating conditions. The effect of a Vacreator evaporator on the hourly powder capacity of a roller-drying plant is computed from the curves. Comparison of calculated and measured Vacreator evaporative capacities shows agreement. The value of the system as a concentrator prior to roller drying is assessed and suggestions made for improvements.
Firmness and solid fat content over a range of temperatures were determined on two hundred and fifty six samples of butter collected from eleven factories throughout Victoria during the period October, 1975, to September, 1976. There were significant differences between the Gippsland (South East), South West and Northern regions of Victoria in the firmness of the butter produced. These differences were reflected in changes in the solid fat content of the milkfat. Variations in butter firmness between factories within regions was not found to be significant.
On the results of this survey it appears feasible to classify Victorian butters on the basis of season and possible region, into ‘soft’ ‘normal’ and ‘hard’ and use this to advantage in selecting butters for particular end uses.
An investigation was made of three methods of determining viscosity index based on the following solutions: 1. 9% casein in sodium hydroxide solution; 2. 10% casein in ammonia solution; 3. 15% casein in borax solution. Differences between samples were much more obvious with (3) than with (1) or (2). Method (3) was evidently the most useful for judging suitability of caseins for paper coating. It had the additional advantage that with normal caseins the pH of the final solutions fell in the narrow range (6.7-7.0) in which pH differences had little effect on viscosity.
Casein made from milk acidified to pH 4.5 before the cooking process gives a solution of comparatively low viscosity when dissolved at a concentration of 15% in borax solution. Where the pH before cooking is higher, the viscosity of the solution is raised and reaches extremely high values for casein precipitated at pH 5.0. Washing the curd with water above 180°F. causes a small rise in the viscosity index of the casein. Drying casein for up to 2 hours at temperatures not exceeding 190°F. does not increase its viscosity index above that of a freeze dried sample.
For the design and selection of cream pumps and for the solution of cream pumping problems in butter factories it is necessary to have data o the viscosities of the various types of cream likely to be encountered. This paper discusses a limited investigation undertaken to determine the viscosities of creams taken at different times of the year from various points in the cream flow lines of two butter factories.
A survey of southern Queensland butters during the period November 1957 to November 1958 revealed average annual total vitamin A potency, vitamin A and β-carotene values of 41.62, 28.88 and 12.76 I.U./gm. respectively. β-carotene contributed 30.47 per cent. of the total vitamin A potency during the year. A seasonal variation in the total vitamin A potency, vitamin A and β-carotene values was found during the period of the survey, minimum values occurring in the late summer to autumn period; maximum values in late winter and early spring. No correlation between rainfall registrations and vitamin A content of butters was evident. Values for total vitamin A potency did not vary greatly from district to district, although feeding level for different areas varied considerably.
Authors: Tom McMeekin, Mark Tamplin, Tom Ross and Shigenobu Koseki
Herein we describe systems and technologies for the application of predictive models and the development of growth boundary models. The latter are supported by systematic analysis of the literature and are now used in risk assessments including those cold tolerant pathogens in minimally processed foods including dairy products. To promote further application of predictive models in the dairy industry and potential triple bottom line benefits we strongly advocate collaboration and integration of R&D at several levels.
The effects of processing conditions and additives on whipping properties of homogenized and homogenized sterilized cream were studied.
Homogenization of cream increased whipping time and decreased overrun to an extent dependent on the homogenizing conditions. The effects of homogenization could, to a large extent, be overcome by adjustment of the degree of aggregation of the fat globules by physical or chemical methods. Addition of calcium, or decrease in pH, both of which were shown to cause clustering of fat globules, shortened whip times and improved whip quality. The addition of sodium citrate - a calcium sequestering agent - resulted in fat globule dispersion and decreased the tendency for cream to whip. Addition of milk solids-not-fat or organic stabilizers had relatively minor effects on whip properties of homogenized cream.
Retort sterilization after single-stage homogenization at a pressure of 5 MPa aided fat aggregation as judged by the rate of fat separation on storage. The use of two-stage homogenization at 2 MPa and 0.7 MPa reduced this tendency. The factors shown to affect fat aggregation in homogenized cream had similar effects on fat separation in sterilized cream.
Adequate control of fat separation in retort sterilized homogenized cream, together with satisfactory whipping properties, were achieved by the addition of a mixed carrageenanlecithin stabilizer.
Thermal conductivities of spray- and roller-dried milk baby foods were determined experimentally at 35° to 65°C and at three different bulk densities by the steady state method. The thermal conductivities of both baby foods increased linearly with increasing temperature. Thermal conductivity also increased with increase in bulk density at constant temperature. By extrapolation, the thermal conductivities of both types of baby foods were almost equal at similar conditions of variables. Both baby foods became brown solid masses at about 98°C.
Authors: A.J. Baldwin, J.E.R. Lovell-Smith and M.J. Vanden Brink
Most cream crystallising silos in New Zealand are installed outside and are of 'triple skin' construction, with the inner and intermediate walls forming an annulus, an insulation layer and an outer cladding. The latent heat generated by the crystallisation of the cream is removed by chilled water streaming down the silo wall within the annulus. The rates of heat gain from the ambient air were determined for a triple skin silo (as described above), a double skin (with an annulus but without insulation) and a single skin silo. The annual cost of refrigeration required to remove the heat gains was estimated. It was calculated that the post of power for refrigeration required to remove the heat gains to cream crystallising silos would be $NZ90/year for a triple skin silo and $NZ440/y for a double skin silo. It was concluded that the savings in refrigeration energy cost were insufficient to justify the cost of the insulation and the third skin. The elimination of the insulation layer and the adoption of a double skin design is thus recommended. As well as a reduction in capital cost, the simplication of design will assist in ensuring the structural integrity of the stainless steel silos.